The Arrangement of Electrons in the Atom
An energy level is defined as the fixed energy value that an electron in an atom may have.
Electrons revolve around the nucleus in orbitals
The electrons in an orbit have a fixed energy
Note: Orbitals are also known as energy levels
As long as an electron is not in any one particular energy level, it neither gains or loses energy 4.
When an atom absorbs energy it jumps to a higher energy level
Note: They do not remain there for long
Energy is lost when an electron falls from a high energy level to a lower energy level
Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle states that it is impossible to measure both the velocity and position of an electron at the same time.
An orbital is a region in which there is a high probability of locating an electron.
px, py and pz orbitals are dumb-bell shaped
The Periodic Table
An element is a substance that cannot be made simpler by chemical means
Johann Dobereiner divided the elements into groups of three known as triads The three elements had similar chemical properties in which the atomic weight of the middle element was the average of the other two
John Newlands classified the elements into groups of eight known as octaves The eight elements were ordered by increasing atomic weight
The first and eighth element had similar properties
Dmitri Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic weight The elements showed a periodic repetition of chemical properties
How does the Newlands’ Table differ from Mendeleev’s table
Mendeleev left gaps to allow for the discovery of new elements Newlands did not leave gaps
In a few cases Mendeleev reversed the order of certain elements allowing them to fall into certain groups Newlands did not reverse the order of the elements
Henry Moseley used X-rays to determine the atomic number of an element
An atomic number is the number of protons in the...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document