A Latin American Empire (Page 384 -387)
Leaders of the United States started realizing that their country's security depends on the security of Latin America. (due to strong links with their southern neighbors)
Most Latin American colonies were independent by the early 1800's but were still not secure. They feared that European countries would try to re-conquer the new republics. The US feared this too;
Monroe Doctrine: (President James Monroe- 1823) The document stated that "the American continents... are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers." (Until 1898, this law had little enforcement but due to Cuba, which gave the US a testing ground)
Cuba Declares Independence:
Caribbean Island of Cuba (one of Spain's last colonies in America). In 1868; Cuba declared its independence and fought a ten-year war against Spain. In 1878; Cuba gave up the fight due to its island which was in ruins. - But Cubans still continued to seek independence from Spain. In 1895; Jose Marti (a writer which has been exiled from Cuba by the Spanish) returned to launch a second war for Cuban independence. - Killed early in fighting while the rest battled on. Min 1890s' US had developed substantial business holdings in Cuba, there for it had an economic stake in the fate of the country. In addition, the Spanish had forced many Cuban civilians into concentration camps(Americas objected to the Spanish brutality). Spanish-American War: In 1898; The US joined the Cuban war for independence. This lasted about four months. The Us forces launched their first attack not on Cuba but on the Philippine Islands, a Spanish colony thousands of miles away in the Pacific. Unprepared for a war on two fronts, the Spanish military quickly collapsed. In 1901; Cuba became an independent nation, at least in name- However, the US installed a military government and continued to exert control over Cuban affairs. This caused tremendous resentment...
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