Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University
The Kingdom Monera
Glenn Mark B. Martin
Lapridad Julieta D. Reyes, Ph.D.
The members of the Kingdom Monera are prokaryotes and Some are the most primitive type of all cell to have evolved on earth. They lack organelles such as nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, and lysosomes. Cell wall contains peptidoglycan composed of sugar linked by amino acids. They have a single circular chromosome located in a nucleoid. The main chromosomes consists of circular segments of DNA called plasmids which carries genes antibiotic resistance and alleles of genes also found on the main chromosome. Reproduction is mainly asexual called binary fission which produces genetically identical copies of the original cell. Some prokaryotes transfer genetic material through sex pili from a donor to a transformation , prokaryote picks up from the environment free pieces of DNA secreted by live bacteria or released by dead bacteria then incorporates the genes into its own genetic makeup. In transduction, a virus serves as a vector in transporting genes from one organism to another. The size of prokaryotic cells range from about 0.2 to 10 micrometers in diameter (0.0001) to 0.003 millimeters).
1-10 µm long and 1-5 µm³ in volume
No membrane bound nucleus; live in hypotonic fluids
With cell wall which is made of peptidoglycan polymers (murein) With capsule, a thick, mucus like coating which can resist attack by the host’s immune system Pili (Latin for “hairs”), thread like which are 1-2 µm long, adheres the bacteria on the surface of the host cells and some pili participates in sexual reproduction of bacteria called conjugation the plasma membrane beneath the cell wall is a selective barrier to the movement of substances in and out of the cell; it also provides attachment for internal...
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