Investigatory Projects

Topics: Chi-square distribution, Chi-square test, Insect repellent Pages: 5 (1092 words) Published: September 29, 2014
Investigatory Projects

Pinus insularis cones and Salix babylonica as Active ingredients in a Mosquito Repellant Abstract. Mosquitoes have pestered land and vertebrates for millions of years. Commercial insecticides available today, however, are not environment-friendly and may be expensive. This Study aimed to develop an environment-friendly, safe, effective, and cheap mosquito repellant. Pinus insularis (pine cones) and Salix babylonica (weeping willow) leaves were gathered from different places. A solution was extracted, collected and distilled to separate the extract from the solvent. A mixture with rations of 1:1.5 and 1:25 weeping willow leaves and pine cone extracts prepared. The mixture was then tested on wrigglers and adult mosquitoes. The chi-square test was used to determine if there was an association between the death of the wrigglers and mosquitoes and the presence of the repellant. The statistical test showed that the prepared mosquito repellant was not effective.

INTRODUCTION
Many harmful microorganisms are carried by mosquitoes. This way they harm human and animals. A hundreds of chemicals have been developed to act as mosquito repellants. The problem, however, is that these chemicals are expensive and pose harm to the environment. This study aims to develop an environment friendly, safe, and effective yet cheap mosquito repellant by using weeping pillow leaves and pine cones. The activity is not success but it shows the different scientific processes to be followed in doing an experiment.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Mosquitoes are one of the most harmful creatures in the world, not only to humans but also to other land vertebrates as well. They carry viruses that are sometimes fatal when transmitted to humans. Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes are common in are tropics (Merit Encyclopedia, 1969).

Mosquito-borne diseases are transmitted to the body of the host through mosquito bites and contaminated f0od. The saliva of the mosquito is sometimes infected with pathogens. These pathogens are transmitted to the hosts when they are bitten by the mosquitoes. Common viral infections caused by Mosquitoes are more pronounced in the larval stages and can result from the ingestion of contaminated food. Mosquito-borne diseases include malaria, dengue or break bone fever, filariascis, yellow fever, and H- fever (Mittles, et. Al,. 1971 Insecticides are recommended to combat these disease -carrying pests and “trouble makers.” Insecticides are widely used as chemicals in controlling pests, which are either organic or chemically synthesized. The plant kingdom is a vast source of naturally occurring and selective insecticides (Morillo-Rojesus and Eroles 1978). They may be extracted from the powdered portions of plants such as the flower, leaves, steam, or roots (Colliers, 1972). Insecticides include nicotine, rotenone, pyrethius, and sabadilla. Some have been used by humans for a long time. As early as1972, nicotine was used as an insecticide in the form of a crude extract from tobacco. Nicotine’s alkaloid can be obtained from the leaves and stems of Nicotina Tabacun (Napitan, 1976). Nicotine is harmful to humans though it doesn’t effect the plants when applied . Rotenone, the most active of the six alkaloids , is harmful to man but a very effective poison against various insects (Beya, 1972). On the other hand , essential oils from eucalyptus and casyophyllum were use as effective mosquito insecticide or repellant (Smith. 1996). A research made on the subject found that weeping willow (Salix babylonica) leaves contain essential oils similarly found in eucalyptus (Antonio, 1984). Pinus Insularis, commonly known as Khasya pine, is found in Khasia hills and Matarban, in the hills of Burma and in Central Luzon. It is a valuable source of resin turpentine. It grows up to 15 m (150 feet) and has very fine, grass-like needles (Tree of the World). It contains alkaloid, which...
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