1. – Descibe the characteristics of an organisation
Managers work in an organisation, which is a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose. Organisations have three characteristics: - they have a distinct purpose
- the are composed of people
- they have a deliberate structure
Many of today’s organisations are structured to be more open, flexible and responsive to changes, and have undergone some major changes in relation to how they operate.
2. – Explain why managers are important to organisations
Managrtd str important to organisations for three reasons. First, organisations need their managerial skills and abilities in uncertain, complex and chaotic times. Second, managers are critical to getting things done in organisations. Finally, managers contribute to employee productivity and loyalty; the way employees are managed can affect the organisation’s financial performance; and managerial ability has been shown to be important in creating organisational value.
1.5 – Describe the functions, roles and skills of managers
Functions (Fayol, 1916):
Planning – defining goals, establishing strategies and developing plans Organising – arranging and structuring work
Leading – working with and through people
Controlling – Monitoring, comparing and correcting work performance
Roles (Mintzberg, 1973):
Interpersonal: involves people and other ceremonial/symbolic duties - figurehead, leader, liaison
Informational: collecting, receiving and disseminating info
- monitor, disseminator, spokesperson
Decisional: making choices
- entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator.
Skills (Katz, 1974):
Human: working with people
Technical: job-specific knowledge
Conceptual: ability to think or conceptualise
1.6 – Discuss whether the manager’s job is universal
All managers, independently of their organisational level, have to plan, organise, lead and control; however, the time they give to each function varies depending on whether they are first-line, middle or top level managers. In relation to the manager’s functional area, there are some differences but also similarities in relation to managerial roles being performed; however, all managers have to carry out the management functions of planning, organising, leading and controlling within their respective organisational areas. Although there are distinctions between the management of profit and not-for-profit organisations, there are many commonalities in terms of what managers have to do in both of these types of organisations. While there are differences in degree and emphasis of both functions and roles, managers in both small and large organisations perform essentially the same activities. Finally, there are some major differences in preferred managerial practices between countries, which means that, in this area, the manager’s job is less universal.
1.7 – Outline the factors that are reshaping and redefining the manager’s job
The changes impacting manager’s jobs include global economic and political uncertainties, changing workplaces, ethical issues, security threats and changing technology. Managers must be concerned with customer service, since employee attitudes and behaviours play a big role in customer satisfaction. Managers must also be concerned with sustainability as business goals are developed.
2.1 – Provide some examples of early management practice
We can see early examples of management practice in the construction of the Egyptian pyramids and in the arsenal of Venice. One important historical event was the publication of Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations, in which he argued the benefits of division of labour. Another was the Industrial Revolution, where it became more economical to manufacture in factories than at home. Managers were needed to manage these factories, and these managers needed formal management theories to guide them.
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