Intro to Sociology

Topics: Sociology, Max Weber, Karl Marx Pages: 7 (1274 words) Published: February 1, 2013
1. sociology
the study of human society

2. Who argued that in the effort to think critically about the social world around us, we need to use our sociological imagination to see the connections between our personal experience and the larger forces of history? C. Wright Mills

3. sociological imagination
the ability to connect the most basic, intimate aspects of an individual's life to seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces

4. social institution
a complex group of interdependent positions that perform a social role and reproduce themselves over time; also defined in a narrow sense as any institution in a society that works to shape the behavior of the groups or people within it

5. Who invented what he called "social physics" or "positivism"? Auguste Comte (1798-1857)

6. Comte's three historical, epistemological stages
* 1. Theological stage
* 2. Metaphysical stage
* 3. Scientific stage

7. Comte's stage in which society seemed to be the result of devine will theological stage

8. Comte's stage in which scholars might consult the Bible or other ecclesiastical texts theological stage

9. Comte's stage in which Enlightenment thinkers such as Jean Jacques Rousseau, John Stuart Mill, and Thomas Hobbes saw humankind's behavior as governed by natural, biological instincts metaphysical stage

10. Comte's stage in which to understand the nature of society, we needed to strip away the layers of society to better comprehend how our basic drives and natural instincts governed and established the foundation for the surrounding world metaphysical stage

11. Comte's stage in which we would develop a social physics of sorts in order to indentify the scientific laws that govern human behavior scientific stage

12. Who was the first to translate Comte into English?
Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)

13. works of Harriet Martineau
* Theory and Practice of Society in America (1837)
* How to Observe Morals and Manners (1838)

14. Who is considered one of the earliest feminist social scientists writing in the English language? Harriet Martineau

15. founding fathers of the sociological discipline
* Karl Marx
* Max Weber
* Emile Durkheim
* sometimes: Georg Simmel

16. most famous fo the founding fathers?
Karl Marx (1818-1883)

17. the term Marxism (an ideological alternative to capitalism) is derived from his surname Karl Marx

18. Who criticized Marx for his exclusive focus on the economy and social class, advocating sociological analysis that allowed for the multiple influences of culture, economics, and politics? Max Weber (1864-1920)

19. works of Max Weber
* Economy and Society (1914)
* lengthy essay - "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

20. Verstehen
* German: understanding
* this concept forms the object of inquiry for interpretive sociology - to study how social actors understand their actions and the social world through experience * Weber suggested that sociologists approach social behavior from the perspective of those engaging in it

21. founding father from France
Emile Durkheim

22. founding father from Germany
Max Weber

23. founding father who settled in London
Karl Marx

24. works of Emile Durkheim
* The Division of Labor in Society (1893)
* Suicide (1897)
* The Elemental Forms of Religions of Life

25. anomie
* a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable * to little social regulation
* normlessness

26. positivist sociology
a strain within sociology that believes the social world can be described and predicted by certain describable relationships (akin to a social physics)

27. received less credit as one of the founders of sociology, although as of late is gaining...
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