Timeline covering the history of schooling
1779- Thomas Jefferson proposes bill for the “General Diffusion of Knowledge”. He was concerned with finding the best politicians through this system of schooling 1790- George Washington proposes National University for training political leaders and creating a national culture 1793- William Godwin declares public schools a form of political tyranny
1808- Johann Fichte advocates teaching patriotism to maintain a national state 1837- Horace Mann becomes secretary of Massachusetts Board of Education 1820-1840s- Teaching common moral and political values, equality of opportunity 1873- 1st public school kindergarten is created to fight urban poverty 1892- Francis Bellamy composes Pledge of Allegiance
1896- Edward Ross declares public schools a form of “social control” and a substitute for family, community and church
1880-1920s- Americanization of immigrants, training labor force for industrialized jobs and school reforms to tackle urban/industrialized conditions 1908- 1st vocational Guidance established Bureau
1909- Home Economics Association is founded to reform families and cities 1917- Smith-Hughes Act supports vocational and home economics education 1918- National Education Association's “Cardinal Principles of Education” provides plan for modern high school as central institution for socialization of youth 1920-1940s- Expansion of high schools to control youth & to keep youth out of the job market 1926- National Education Association recommends teaching sex education in schools to protect family and marriage 1945- Federal Government launches Life-Adjustment Education Program
1950-1980s- Racial and cultural harmony, War on Poverty, education more scientists and engineers, equality of educational opportunity, career education 1958- National Defense Education Act–federal government enlists schools in Cold War against the Soviet Union 1964- Head Start begins as part of federal War on Poverty
1965- Elementary and Secondary Education act–key War on Poverty Legislation 1972- Career education–federal effort to make all education relevant to the workplace 1980-2003- Community Service, preparation for global economy, control of learning through testing 1991- President George H. Bush announces “Goals 2000” designed to link schools to global economy 2001- “No Child Left Behind” federal legislation
Main points in the political goals of schooling
Teaching a common set of political beliefs
Transmission of culture and values we hold common
Learning to obey the law and obeying school rules (Socialization) Obeying rules was a way a good citizen acted and also to build a sense of loyalty (Fichte) Providing an equal opportunity for all to be elected to political positions Emphasizing voting as the key to political and social change was the duty of a citizen to participate in voting
Learning about the workings of government
in order to participate in voting and to run for presidency Educating patriotic citizens
Educating students to be involved in community activities Censorship Issues
California and Texas are the major textbook distributors (more Texas now) “Texas State School Board was sued in 2003 for rejecting the textbook Environmental Science: Creating a Sustainable Future (sixth edition) by David D. Chiras. The board rejected the book for 'promoting radical policies' and being 'anti-free enterprise and anti-American'. In its place, the bard chose a science textbook partially financed by a group of mining companies according to the suit filed by Trial Lawyers fr Public Justice...” (Spring 14). “During the hearings, Out of Many: A History of the American People was criticized not only for its section “Cowgirls and Prostitutes” but also for its mention of Margret Sanger and the development of contraception, and the gay rights movement” (Spring, 15). “Subsequently, the board ordered the removal of the books from the library shelves. The books included Best of Short Stories of Negro Writers edited by Langston Hughes, Down These Mean Streets by Piri Thomas, The Fixer by Bernard Malamud, Go Ask Alice of anonymous authorship…” (Spring, 17). This was because board members in New York considered these books morally and politically inappropriate for high school students “Those wanting evolutionary theory to be presented to science students as controversial also want students to learn about biblical statements on the origin of life and theories associated with intelligent design” (Spring, 20). Religious censorship Important Court Cases
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District
A group of Des Moines students decided to express their objections to the war in Vietnam by wearing black armbands. School authorities in Des Moines adopted a policy declaring that any students wearing a black armband would be suspended. The U.S Supreme Court decided that a student may express his opinion, even on controversial subjects such as the war on Vietnam. This was a cases on the freedom of speech. “One extremely important condition is placed on the right of free speech of students and that is that the possibility of disruption of the educational process. Hazelwood School District v Kuklemier
A school newspaper published by the journalism class at Missouri's Hazelwood High School. The newspaper contained articles on student pregnancies and students from divorced families. False names were used to protect the identity of students. The school's principal objected the articles because the interviewed students might be identifiable and he considered the sexual discussions inappropriate for high school students. In favor of Hazelwood
Effects of schooling on voting
According to the statistics in the book, the more a student attended school, the less likely they were to vote. At the same time, students thought that voting shows respect toward the government and was something that good citizens do.... Spring Ch.2
Horace Mann's hopes for the effects of schooling on social/moral issues He believed moral instruction in schools would reduce crime He stated a formula for a good society which basically stated “Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it.” Give him a direction and a passion, and he will be alright. He also hoped that mixing students of various socioeconomic status would break down social barriers. He also hoped that this would create a sense of community that would encompass rich and poor. Wanted schools to become a general welfare institution. Argued this would morally uplift the quality of urban living by replacing brothels, saloons, and dance halls as centers of recreation. Religion vs Secularism in schools–school prayer issues, ect.. Catholic churches and some christian dominions wanted school become morally focused on concepts from religion. Many schools in the 1960s began the school day with a reading from the bible because people and parents assumed moral instruction was derived from Christianity. U.S Supreme Court ruled that school prayer and bible readings were unconstitutional. This ruling resulted in people thinking school was anti-religious and only promoted secular values. Engel v. Vitale denied the right of a public school system to conduct prayer services within school buildings during regular school hours. New York schools could continue school prayer, as long as students were allowed to not participate if they or their parents didn't want them to. Abbington School District v Schempp. The issue was that Pennsylvania law permitted the reading of 10 bible verses at the beginning of each public school day. The verses were to be read without comment and students would walk outside the classroom if they wanted too. The court objected to the reading of the bible as part of a religious exercise, but not as a reading to study a piece of literature or comparative history of religion. NCLB (No Child Left Behind) legislation allowed religious groups to form a club where they could read texts and pray all they wanted. Sex Education
in 1926, sex education was promoted by the National Education Association as a means of combating the decline of the family and regulating sexual impulses for the good of society. This was necessary for proper home function
They also advised that sex before marriage is not advised as it is a potential threat to the stability of family 1930's senior prom became a part of the social experience in high school. Instructed youth in proper dating and mating rituals. A debutante ball was a dance like the senior prom with the same social rituals, but for poor or middle-class students. Currently, sex education is concerned with AIDS education. Beliefs in strong moral code to control sexual behavior. Those who believe this also strongly believe in abstinence outside of marriage, and take a strong stance against homosexuality. Other people, on the other hand, emphasize sex education programs that teach safe sex procedures and advocate dispensing condoms in public schools. Sex Respect (1983), program that had a curriculum designed to motivate teens to practice Chasity. Sex respect defines sexual freedom as the freedom to say “no”. What is “Character Education”?
According to the character education part of the NCLB, it means education students in the following virtues Caring
Civic Virtue and Citizenship
Justice and fairness
How do schools deal with bullying/cyberbullying?
How have concerns over the American Diet played out in schools since 1909? Home economic courses were designed to train women to be scientific housekeepers who would free themselves from the drudgery by relying on processed foods and packaged goods. The point was to make food as quickly and cheaply as possible but at the same time, maintain a “nutritional balance.” The wife was supposed to just heat up the meal. Taste < Productivity
2002, Obesity Prevention Program. Obesity epidemic made American citizens more conscious about their diet. What are the values of extracurricular activities?
The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education helped make public school socialization centers through extracurricular activities like dance, athletics, student government, clubs, ect... 1990s showed a major decline in extracurricular activities because of budget cuts, and too much time on standardized test preparation. Spring Ch.3
What does “equality of opportunity” mean in relation to school? Equal opportunity means that all members of society are given equal chances to pursue wealth and enter any occupation or social class. Three major school models
Everyone in all social classes receives the same common education and the social starting line is in the job market. Was considered unfair because rich families could afford tutors and poor families had work to do instead of studying or homework. Rich people could provide kids with special advantages. Sorting-Machine
Social starting line is inside the school. Students get sorted by teachers and counselors into tracks and ability groups. You can graduate with vocational training, or college preparation depending on which track you were placed in. The material on the test was biased because some people took the test and it had information that was irrelevant to their lives. For example, poor people did poorly on these tests because the material was unfamiliar to them. High-Stakes Testing Model
Individual takes tests for every part of life. These tests test what the student has learned and the results determine going on to the next grade, graduate, undergraduate, and professional licenses, graduation, ect... (MCAT, LSAT, SAT, ACT, CST, CAHSEE ect...) This makes the job market require more and more from an employee. Not just an interview, but proof of accreditation (only given through passing an exam), proof of test scores and college transcripts. Natural Selection for job market. What are the correlations between Education and income, and gender and income? Education and Income: The higher an education an individual receives, the more money they make Gender and Income: If you are a male, you earn more money than your female counterparts for whatever reason. What does “White Privilege” refer too?
White people automatically earn more money than any other race no matter what level of education they attain. You earn more for being white. Where are high-poverty schools located?
The best school districts are in rich neighborhood schools, and poor people cannot afford to live there so this is a form of economic segregation. What are some “At Risk” factors?
1. Being in the lowest SES (Socioeconomic status)
2. Changing schools two more more times from grades 1-8 (except the transition from middle to high school) 3. Having average grades of C or lower from grades 6-8
4. Being in a single-parent household during grade 8
5. Having one or more siblings who left high school before completion 6. Being held back one or more times from grades 1-8
Ability grouping and tracking, social reproduction
Social Reproduction refers to having kids in a social class go through school, and graduate still trapped in the same class. There is no social maneuvering. To put it simply, it means that the schools reproduce the social class structure of society. Grouping
Places students in different classes or groups based on their ability The subject that the U.S does this the most is mathematics When I was in AP Calculus, I have quite literally the exact same classes as the 16 people in my class Tracking
separates students into different curricula such as a college preparatory curriculum, vocational and general curriculum Spring Ch.4
Human Capital Theory
Investment in education will improve the quality of workers and, consequently, increase the wealth of the community. Human Capital Theory is used to justify community support in schools War on Poverty, Head Start
Used compensatory school programs to eliminate poverty such as educational television such as sesame street, and a program called Head Start. War in Poverty (1960s) Head Start programs are premised under the idea that low-income families begin school at a disadvantage in comparison to children from middle and high income classes. The provide early childhood education to give poor children a head start on schooling that allows them to compete on equal terms with other children. What are the effects of so-called “Educational Inflation”? Are jobs tied to more Schooling? The declining economic value of high school and college diplomas are a result of there not being enough jobs for the knowledge economy. Ex: The increase of the need for engineers in 2016 will have increased 10 percent in relation to those in 2012. But, 90% more people are graduating with a degree in engineering now than in those from the year before. ( # of engineers/# of positions available = more than 100 percent) This can cause jobs to require more credentials and offer less money for pay. This will also cause a company to move else where because they have too many American applicants with the same education than those in another country, but asking for more money. Jobs are NOT tied to more schooling. Training for the job does not require a college degree because training to operate those machines are available on the job. What is the importance of PRESCHOOL?
Preschool helps teach kids the socialization part of school early on instead of acquiring them during kindergarten. They learn non-cognitive abilities linked with success such as motivation, self-disipline, stability, dependability, perseverance, self-esteem, optimism, future orientation, and other non-cognitive abilities Preschool is linked to Economic success (Perry Preschool Study) Cultural Capital–what is it? Why is it important?
Cultural Capital: economic value of a person's behaviors, attitudes, knowledge, and cultural experiences. It is related to income and therefore has economic value when seeking employment. Behaviors learned at home contribute to behaviors and attitudes that employers are looking for. Visits to museums, concerts, stage performances, and similar experiences, might contribute to a child's cultural capital which helps them interact with “elite groups”. Eminem example: considered “white trash” and didn’t have the social etiquette because his family didn’t teach that to him, hindering his chances of getting high paying jobs like bank manager or business manager. He needed better grammar, speech patterns, dress, and manners to get those jobs. His success was attributed to adapting his social and cultural capital to those of black rappers. What are the family factors (before kids enter kindergarten) that affect reading and math skills of kids? Family factors and Reading Skills (these actions result in higher reading scores for children) Strong Correlation (1.0-0.50 R^2)
Frequency of parents reading to children
Ownership of home computer
Exposure to performing arts
Weak Correlation (