Chapters in ecology
Rate A 04/03/09
Ecology - Science that deals with the interaction between organisms and the environment in which they live .
3 Different approaches to ecology :
A. Descriptive approach - Making field observations and conclusions, and then testing hypotheses elsewhere . She lays the foundation for functional ecology asks vital " How the system works ? "
Two. Theoretical approach - Examining ecological questions and does not rely necessarily on observational data or attempts . First build a model and only brother " As testing ground .
Three. Experimental approach - Examining ecological questions or observations from experiments conducted in the field or laboratory - By " S by the investigator's intervention " J. manipulation .
Very difficult to make qualitative predictions in ecology - There are many unpredictable variables .
( Ecosystem - The basic unit of ecology , Complete functional unit functioning on its own even if it is affected by interacting with the environment ( Ecosystem) .
( Ecosystem components includes a - Cruises ( Wind , Water , Temperature ',Humidity ) And components cruises ( Ltd. " H and organisms ).
( Habitat - ( Hbitot / The animals / Biotope ) A place characterized by a combination Particular Environmental factors ( Conditions and resources )Ecosystem consists of a mosaic of habitats . Many kinds of habitats =Heterogeneous system .
Rate 2 - Complete .
Rate 3 18/03/09
Super predators - The chain / Food pyramid :
Evaluation of secondary production efficiency - Elephants, for example , Largest land mammal . Consume about 10% Food from the area where the elephant energy produces live . Manure , Energy utilization and leaving only basic Mtabolizim 7.1 K. " C increase in offspring .
The conclusion - Let him devour the elephant who will only 10% What he ate it 1%Living space made .
Secondary production efficiency of the Elephants 10% Elephants represent a high level of energy efficiency .
A. In mammals -
Insectivorous 0.86% Very little .
Big eaters ( Large herbivores ) 3.14%
Two. Poultry -1.29%
Three. Fish 9.8% ( Body temperature varies with ).
Four. Invertebrates 25%
- Only a small fraction of the energy can move from one masonite Second !
- Each level masonite will always be smaller than the level on which it is based( This is below ).
- Pyramid Food :
Primary producers ( Green plants ) -> Secondary consumers ( Eaters ) ->Tertiary consumer ( Predators ) -> Quarterly consumer ( Super predators ).
Apparently there is no food chain food web but , We have many manufacturers eaten by " S consumers are eaten by many " S many consumers . The more complex fabric - It is more stable !
As you walk up the pyramid - That declining tax ' Life at any stage .
Eg - Estuary food web .
Primary producers - Shore plants and water plants .
Secondary consumer - Snails , Fish , Insects
Tertiary consumers - Seabirds , Rats ( Eat all ) Mice .
Quarterly consumer - Secondary tropical - Birds of prey .
Joints - Bacteria and bacteria that care untapped material .
Relationship caps Between two levels Foods By various " P. energetic value - (The best way to measure )
Primary producers 8763 Keck " To Per year .
Primary consumers - Herbivores 596 K. " To
Predators - 48 K. " To .
Joints 3800 K. " To .
Important ecological lessons :
- Food web , Each level masonite will always be smaller than the level that it consumes foods ( Terms of energy And biomass Mostly ).
- The food web is always more stable than the food chain .
- Since higher levels of food ( Top predators ) Fabric has " As less information and less species , Sensitivity of these tropical levels to changes in environmental conditions will increase !
- Since high levels...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document