AP Psychology Outline
Chapter 9: Intelligence & Psychological Testing
Red – Definition
Blue - Important Points
Green - Important People & Contributions
1. Key Concepts in Psychological Testing
a. Psychological Test – Standardized Measure of a Sample of a Person’s Behavior. i. Used to Measure Individual Differences.
b. Types of Tests
i. Mental Ability Tests
1. Intelligence Tests – Measure General Mental Ability.
2. Aptitude Tests – Measure Specific Types of Mental Abilities. a. Verbal Reasoning, Perceptual Speed, Accuracy, etc.
3. Achievement Test – Measure a Person’s Mastery and Knowledge of Various Subjects. a. Reading English, History, etc.
ii. Personality Tests – Measure Various Aspects of Personality, including Motives, Interests, Values, and Attitudes. c. Standardizing & Norms
i. Standardization – Uniform Procedures used in the Administration and Scoring of a Test. ii. Test Norms – Provide Information about Where a Score on a Psychological Test Ranks in Relation to other Scores on that Test. iii. Percentile Score – Indicates the Percentage of People who Score at or Below the Score one has Obtained. d. Reliability – Measurement of Consistency of a Test (Or to Other Kinds of Measurement Techniques.) i. Correlation Coefficient – A Numerical Index of the Degree of Relationship between 2 Variables. 1. Closer to +1.00, the More Reliable Test is.
e. Validity – Ability of a Test to Measure what it was Designed to Measure. i. Refers to Accuracy of Inferences or Decisions based on Test. f. Content Validity – The Degree to which the Content of a Test is Representative of the Domain it’s supposed to Cover. g. Criterion-Related Validity – Estimated by Correlating Subject’ Scores on a Test with their Scores on an Independent Criterion (Another Measure) of the Trait assessed by the Test. h. Construct Validity – The Extent to which Evidence Shows that a Test Measures a Particular Hypothetical Construct. 2. Evolution of Intelligence Testing
a. Sir Francis Galton
i. Intelligence is Governed by Heredity. Nature.
ii. Success Runs in Families.
iii. Coined Phrase “Nature vs. Nurture.
iv. Wrote “Hereditary Genius” (1869)
b. Alfred Binet
i. First Mental Intelligence Test in 1905.
ii. Designed Tests for Schools in France for Students.
iii. Mental Age – Indicates that He/She Displays the Mental Ability Typical of a Child of that Age. iv. Intelligence Increases with Development. Nurture.
c. Lewis Terman & Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.
i. Lewis Terman
ii. Revised Binet Tests in 1916.
iii. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – A Child’s Mental Age divided by Chronological Age, Multiplied by 100. iv. Makes it Possible to Compare Children of Different Ages. d. David Wechsler
i. Improved IQ Tests for Adults.
ii. Idealized Verbal & Nonverbal IQ’s.
e. Intelligence Testing Today
i. Individual Tests & Group Tests Today.
ii. Most likely Score Higher on Group Test.
3. Basic Questions: Intelligence Testing
a. IQ Questions are Diverse, Require to Furnish Information, Recognize Vocabulary, Figure Patterns, Demonstrate Memory. b. Meaning of IQ Scores
i. Normal Distribution – Symmetric, Bell-Shaped Curve that Represents the Pattern in Which Many Characteristics are Dispersed in the Population. ii. Deviation IQ Scores – Locate Subjects Precisely within the Normal Distribution, Using Standard Deviation as the Unit of Measurement. iii. Modern IQ Scores Indicate exactly where you Fall in the Normal Distribution of Intelligence. c. IQ Tests Measure a Blend of Potential & Knowledge.
d. IQ Tests are Exceptually Reliable, But Can still yield Unrepresentative Scores. e. Intelligence Tests & Adequate Validity
i. IQ Tests are Reasonably Valid Indexes of Academic Intelligence. ii. IQ Tests do not Measure all of Mental Ability.
iii. 3 Types of Intelligence
1. Verbal Intelligence
2. Practical Intelligence
3. Social Intelligence
f. Intelligence Tests & Success
i. People who Score High on IQ Tests are more Likely than those who Score...
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