INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

Topics: Muscle, Digestion, Stomach Pages: 9 (1831 words) Published: January 22, 2014
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
FUNCTIONS
1. Covering and protection
2. Secretion (cutaneous gland)
3. Excretion of metabolic wastes (cutaneous gland)
4. Sensation (presence of nerve endings and tacticle)
5. Respiration – in frog
6. Absorption – in frog
7. Regulation of body temperature
HOMOIOTHERMOUS ANIMALS- warm blooded animals or those with regulated body temperature because of their heat-conserving body. POIKILOTHERMOUS ANIMALS - cold blooded animals whose body temperature closely follows that of their environment. INVERTEBRATE INTEGUMENTS

Protozoa- delicate cell membrane (Amoeba)
Coelenterata- epidermis, single layer of cells (e.g. corals and Hydra)
Annelida- epidermis contains non-cellular cuticle (e.g. earthworm)
Platyhelminthes- epidermis contain contains resistant cuticle (e.g. liver fluke and tape worm.)
Arthropoda- chitin (e.g. shrimp, crabs, lobster and insects)
Mollusca- shell (clams, mussels and oysters)
VERTEBRATE INTEGUMENTS
I. EPIDERMIS - outer, thinner but stratified layer of the skin - Ectodermal in origin
- epidermal derivatives – hairs, nails, claws, scutes, hoofs, beaks and bills, horny scales, feathers, spines, enamels of the teeth, gland, horns. II. DERMIS - inner, thicker layer of the skin.
Made up of mostly connective tissue fibers, smooth muscles, blood vessels and nerve ending Mesodermal in origin.
Dermal derivatives of the skin- scale of fishes, antlers, dentine, and bony plates. Subcutaneous connective tissues- connective tissue that separates the skin from the underlying muscles Chromatophores- specialized connective tissue cells which contain pigments. Types of Chromatophores

1. Melanophores- black or brown pigment (melamine)
2. Lipophores- red or yellow pigment (erythrocin and xanthin) 3. Quanophores- colorless, white crystalline materials (guanine) ex. Fishes 4. Photophores- make animal luminous. Ex. Deep sea shark
Human skin
I. Epidermis- four layers
1. Stratum corneum- the non-living layer (sole and palm)
2. Stratum lucidum- clear layer
3. Stratum granulosum- granular layer
4. Stratum germinativum- the living or growing layer
II. Dermis- thick and strong but not divided into layers
Glands- cells or group of cells specialized in structure, and function to produce substance needed in bodily process. Type of glands:
1. Sebaceous or oil gland- found all over the surface of the body (except the palm and sole and open into hair follicle.) 2. Sudoriferous or sweet glands- found all over the body and opens into the pores of the skin. 3. Mammary gland- secretes milk.

Preoptic area- temperature sensitive area of the skin
Heat Lose achieved by:1. Radiation
2. Conduction & convection
3. Evaporation & convection
4. Clothing
@@ SKELETAL SYSTEM @@
Skeleton- any harden portion of the body which may either be located externally (exoskeleton) or internally (endoskeleton) Ossification- process of bone development (ex. Bone of skull)

Functions of the skeletal system
* Serves as frame work (body)
* Gives physical support (body)
* For protection
*Provide muscle attachment
* Leverage for locomotion
* Prevent the loss of body fluids
* Manufactures red blood cell of the bone marrow of long bone. INVERTEBRATE SKELETON:
Protozoa- may be calcareous, siliceous or glassy or organic substance.
Porifera- spicules (siliceous or calcareous or sponging fiber)
Coelenterata, Echinodermata and Mollusca- made up of lime (calcium carbonate)
Arthropoda- Jointed exoskeleton (chitin)
VERTEBRATE SKELETON:
Element of endoskeleton:
1. Cartilage- present in all vertebrate
2. Bones- present in all but except cyclostomes and cartilaginous fishes (shark) Type of endoskeleton:
1. Axial endoskeleton- bones which is located at the center of the body 2. Appendicular endoskeleton- bones which are located laterally or at the side of the body. 3.
AXIAL ENDOSKELETON:
Skull- encloses and protects the brain as well as the sense organs. Sternum- ventrally...
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