Topics: Muscle, Digestion, Stomach Pages: 9 (1831 words) Published: January 22, 2014
1. Covering and protection
2. Secretion (cutaneous gland)
3. Excretion of metabolic wastes (cutaneous gland)
4. Sensation (presence of nerve endings and tacticle)
5. Respiration – in frog
6. Absorption – in frog
7. Regulation of body temperature
HOMOIOTHERMOUS ANIMALS- warm blooded animals or those with regulated body temperature because of their heat-conserving body. POIKILOTHERMOUS ANIMALS - cold blooded animals whose body temperature closely follows that of their environment. INVERTEBRATE INTEGUMENTS

Protozoa- delicate cell membrane (Amoeba)
Coelenterata- epidermis, single layer of cells (e.g. corals and Hydra)
Annelida- epidermis contains non-cellular cuticle (e.g. earthworm)
Platyhelminthes- epidermis contain contains resistant cuticle (e.g. liver fluke and tape worm.)
Arthropoda- chitin (e.g. shrimp, crabs, lobster and insects)
Mollusca- shell (clams, mussels and oysters)
I. EPIDERMIS - outer, thinner but stratified layer of the skin - Ectodermal in origin
- epidermal derivatives – hairs, nails, claws, scutes, hoofs, beaks and bills, horny scales, feathers, spines, enamels of the teeth, gland, horns. II. DERMIS - inner, thicker layer of the skin.
Made up of mostly connective tissue fibers, smooth muscles, blood vessels and nerve ending Mesodermal in origin.
Dermal derivatives of the skin- scale of fishes, antlers, dentine, and bony plates. Subcutaneous connective tissues- connective tissue that separates the skin from the underlying muscles Chromatophores- specialized connective tissue cells which contain pigments. Types of Chromatophores

1. Melanophores- black or brown pigment (melamine)
2. Lipophores- red or yellow pigment (erythrocin and xanthin) 3. Quanophores- colorless, white crystalline materials (guanine) ex. Fishes 4. Photophores- make animal luminous. Ex. Deep sea shark
Human skin
I. Epidermis- four layers
1. Stratum corneum- the non-living layer (sole and palm)
2. Stratum lucidum- clear layer
3. Stratum granulosum- granular layer
4. Stratum germinativum- the living or growing layer
II. Dermis- thick and strong but not divided into layers
Glands- cells or group of cells specialized in structure, and function to produce substance needed in bodily process. Type of glands:
1. Sebaceous or oil gland- found all over the surface of the body (except the palm and sole and open into hair follicle.) 2. Sudoriferous or sweet glands- found all over the body and opens into the pores of the skin. 3. Mammary gland- secretes milk.

Preoptic area- temperature sensitive area of the skin
Heat Lose achieved by:1. Radiation
2. Conduction & convection
3. Evaporation & convection
4. Clothing
Skeleton- any harden portion of the body which may either be located externally (exoskeleton) or internally (endoskeleton) Ossification- process of bone development (ex. Bone of skull)

Functions of the skeletal system
* Serves as frame work (body)
* Gives physical support (body)
* For protection
*Provide muscle attachment
* Leverage for locomotion
* Prevent the loss of body fluids
* Manufactures red blood cell of the bone marrow of long bone. INVERTEBRATE SKELETON:
Protozoa- may be calcareous, siliceous or glassy or organic substance.
Porifera- spicules (siliceous or calcareous or sponging fiber)
Coelenterata, Echinodermata and Mollusca- made up of lime (calcium carbonate)
Arthropoda- Jointed exoskeleton (chitin)
Element of endoskeleton:
1. Cartilage- present in all vertebrate
2. Bones- present in all but except cyclostomes and cartilaginous fishes (shark) Type of endoskeleton:
1. Axial endoskeleton- bones which is located at the center of the body 2. Appendicular endoskeleton- bones which are located laterally or at the side of the body. 3.
Skull- encloses and protects the brain as well as the sense organs. Sternum- ventrally...
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