Human Trafficking: The different risk factors
Human Trafficking: The Different Risk Factors
Definition of Human Trafficking
According to Jac-Kucharski (2012), “human trafficking is defined as the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjective to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery”(p.151). The risk factors that used in the research are, age in regards to traveling alone, poverty, unemployment and sexual abuse. Poverty Factors
Human trafficking is a worldwide issue and one of the causes are poverty (Jac-Kucharski, 2012). According to the United States Census Bureau (USCB) (2013), poverty is defined “as a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who is in poverty”(p. 11). For instance, a family is considered to be in poverty if the total house income is less then their maximum income (USCB, 2013). Poverty makes people feel desperate and look for other means to gain money, and as a result they may get into bigger problems without knowing it. Jac-Kucharski (2012), research states that human traffickers take advantage of peoples’ economic situations and with lies take over their victims’ lives. Woman and men in poverty conditions are easy targets for human trafficking. Through the years, women have been seen as prey for human trafficking, particularly in sexual trafficking, and this problem is not just in the United States but around the world (Hodge, 2008). The business of sexual trafficking continues to grow notably against the other forms of human trafficking: sexual trafficking makes up 79 percent of all human trafficking, and some of the cases result in bride-enslavement (Kim, 2010). It is well known that the majority of women who enroll in the international marriage agencies come from poor homes, and this is advertised in the agencies’ websites. This type of advertising allows American men to feel they are rescuing these powerless women, so they expect their brides to do everything they want them to do. These relationships turn into powerful dominant men and weak brides. The men believe that they can exploit and dominate their brides because they rescued them. The women experience domestic violence, rape, and emotional distress (Kim, 2010).
Jones (2010) states that rarely people see or hear the media reporting on male human trafficking, but it takes place. Thus, the other group that also is targeted to human trafficking is men. The male victims are poor and usually from other countries, but in some cases the men are Americans. For instance, one of these cases was homeless men in the state of Florida; they were forced to work in detrimental conditions and did not receive payment for their work. The men who are brought to the United States come with hope of prosperity, but once they get here they lose their freedom. Some are employed to work in restaurants, construction sites etc. But the majority of them are forced to work in farms. Furthermore, the human traffickers take their victims’ passport, money, and any other possessions making it difficult for them to leave (Jones, 2010). Unemployment Factors
This paper will further explore unemployment as a risk factor for human trafficking and the reasons that unemployment makes human beings so vulnerable to being trafficked and taken against their will. This paper will also explain that there is a difference in human trafficking and human smuggling (Jac-Kucharski, 2012). An estimation in 2008 estimated that almost if not more than 800,000 humans were trafficked within the borders of the United States as well as across United States borders into other countries (Jac-Kucharski, 2012). The United States unemployment average was 5.8%, the highest average the country had ever seen up until that year. Since 2008, the unemployment rate on a...
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Hodge, D. (2008). Sexual trafficking in the United States: A domestic problem with transnational dimensions. Social Work, 53(2), 143-152. doi:10.1093/sw/53.2.143
Jones, S. (2010). The invisible man: The conscious neglect of men and boys in the war on human trafficking. Utah Law Review, 2010(4), 1143-1188. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.proxy194.nclive.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer
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United States Census Bureau. (2013, February). Poverty. Retrieved from
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Wilson, H. W., & Widom, C. (2010). The role of youth problem behaviors in the path from child abuse and neglect to prostitution: A Prospective examination. Journal of Research on APA.
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