Topic 1 – Introduction
1. Definitions: anatomy, physiology, palpation, auscultation, percussion, homeostasis, negative feedback loop, positive feedback loop, intracellular fluid, extracellular fluid, interstitial fluid, anatomical position, supine position, prone position, (frontal or coronal, transverse, sagittal, midsagittal, parasagittal, oblique sections or planes), cell, tissue, organ, organ system, serous membranes (distinguish between visceral and parietal layers), pericardium, pleura, peritoneum, visceral pleura, parietal pleura, visceral pericardium, parietal pericardium, visceral peritoneum, parietal periotoneum, retroperitoneal. Also know your structural names (i.e. olecranon) and regional terms (olecranal). 2. Distinguish between various subdivisions of anatomy and physiology presented in class (e.g. cytology, histology, endocrine physiology, pathology, etc.). 3. Distinguish between ultrasound, MRI, and CT scans in terms of procedure and scope. 4. List the 6 levels of structural organization of the human body in the correct order. 5. Describe 6 characteristics of living things as presented in class. 6. Define homeostasis and distinguish between positive and negative feedback loops with examples. 7. Identify the functions and major organs of the 11 organ systems of the human body. (Be able to tell them apart). 8. Name the two organ systems involved in the regulation of homeostasis and identify the main difference between their two modes of action. 9. Identify the location of the major body cavities and the major organs they house. 10. Describe the structure and functions of serous membranes. 11. Name the 3 body cavities formed by serous membranes and the organs they surround. 12. Identify the abdominopelvic quadrants and regions.
Topic 2 - Chemistry
1. Definitions: matter, mass, weight, elements, atoms, protons, neutrons, electrons, atomic number, atomic mass, isotopes, radioisotopes, molecule, compound, ion, enzymes, metabolism, solute, solvent, solution, suspension, colloid, acids, bases, salts, electrolytes, amphipathic, denaturation. 2. Distinguish between each of the following and provide an example of each: a. ionic bonds and covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds
b. polar molecules and amphipathic molecules
c. exergonic and endergonic reactions
d. catabolism and anabolism
e. synthesis reactions and decomposition reactions
f. hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis reactions
g. cations and anions
h. hydrophilic and hydrophobic
i. hexose and pentose sugars
j. monosaccharides and disaccharides and polysaccharides
k. saturated and unsaturated fatty acids
l. structural (fibrous) and functional (globular) proteins
m. DNA and RNA (structure and functions)
3. Describe each level of protein folding (i.e. primary structure, secondary structure, etc.) including the types of chemical bonds involved. 4. Be able to describe or identify the chemical structures of the various nucleotides, amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids covered in class (i.e. monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, glycerol, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, amino acids, and nucleotides). I won’t make you draw them but be able to recognize my drawings of them as presented in class. 5. Name the 3 monosaccharides absorbed by the human digestive system. 6. Name the monosaccharides that make up each of the following: sucrose, maltose, lactose. 7. Describe the structural differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. 8. Explain what a hydrogenated fat is and explain why it is an unhealthy choice for human diet. 9. Name the type of covalent bonds formed between a) 2 nucleotides, b) 2 amino acids. 10. Name the type of bond that joins both strands of DNA.
11. Define activation energy and describe 4 factors that may increase the rate of a reaction. 12. Describe six properties of water and explain how each contributes to the importance of water within the human body. 13. What is the pH of blood, saliva, vaginal...
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