Why Study Argument?
We read and listen for rhetorical benefit
To voice our opinions
Gather facts when we research
Gathering perspective from all sides opening points of views Trying to overcome bias, and to understand it
Have to build common ground
Need various perspectives first
3. Hear/read multiple positions/perspectives
4. Build a common ground
We use argument/persuasion in our daily life
EXP: at store, with family/friends, work to get resources or raises etc.
Within academic studies you will use persuasion techniques all the time
Opinion: personal inherited beliefs, attitudes and values Vs.
Argument: factualevidence, inherited BUT with REASON
Either/Or Fallacy: one or the other, pick one side, black and white, NO grey scale
Ways to think about Argument
Opinion verses argument: what you think about a subject (attitudes and inherited beliefs) VS reasoning and careful examination of evidence Continuum or multiple perspectives VS “us and them” model
Creating Academic Argument
Evidence gathering, research
Your purpose, audience context
Claims of fact assert that a condition exits has existed of will exist and their support consist of factual info such as statistics, example, and testimony that most responsible observers assume can be verified EXP: The Vancouver Canucks will win the Stanley cup: NOT a claim of fact The sun will rise and set: a claim of fact
To support claim of fact writer needs produce sufficient and appropriate data 1. Sufficient and appropriate data, want data that is accurate, reliable relevant and representative 2. Who are the reliable authorities? what are the reliable sources or facts? 3. Have I made a clear whether my statement are facts/influences?
What kind of appeal (emotional, ethical, logical) will best support an argumentative essay based on the claim of fact
Claims of Value
Make a judgment express approval/disapproval attempt to prove some...
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