1. Evolution occurs at the level of
a. the individual genotype
b. the individual phenotype
c. environmentally based phenotypic variation
d. the population
2. What does natural selection act upon?
a. The gene pool of the species
b. The genotype
c. The phenotype
d. Multiple gene inheritance systems
3. Suppose a particular species of flowering plant that lives only one year can produce red, white, or pink blossoms, depending on its genotype. Biologists studying a population of this species count 300 red-flowering, 500 white-flowering, and 800 pink-flowering plants in a population. When the population is censused the following year, 600 red-flowering, 900 white-flowering, and 1000 pink-flowering plants are observed. Which color has the highest fitness?
4. The ability to taste the chemical PTC is determined in humans by a dominant allele T, with tasters having the genotypes Tt or TT and nontasters having tt. If you discover that 36% of the members of a population cannot taste PTC, then according to Hardy-Weinberg equation, the frequency of the T allele should be
5. A gene in humans has two alleles, M and N, that code for different surface proteins in red blood cells. If you know what the frequency of allele M is 0.2, according to the Hardy-Weinberg equation, the frequency of the genotype MN in the population should be
6. If the frequency of allele b in a gene pool is 0.2, according to the Hardy-Weinberg equation, the expected frequency of the genotype bbb in a triploid (3n) plant species would be
7. A small, isolated population would most likely be subject over time to
a. assortative mating
b. a founder effect
c. genetic drift
d. gene flow
8. Which definition of evolution would have been most foreign to Charles Darwin during his lifetime?
a. change in gene frequency in gene pools
b. descent with modification
c. the gradual change of a population’s heritable traits over generations d. populations becoming better adapted to their environments over the course of generations
e. the appearance of new varieties and new species with the passage of time
9. All of the following criteria for maintaining Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium involving two alleles except
a. the frequency of all genotypes must be equal
b. there should be no natural selection
c. matings must be random
d. populations must be large
e. gene flow from other populations must be zero
10. In a Hardy-Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilibrium, the frequency of the allele a is 0.7. What is the percentage of the population that is homozygous for this allele?
11. In a Hardy-Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilibrium, the frequency of the allele a is 0.7. What is the percentage of the population that is heterozygous for this allele?
In a hypothetical population of 1,000 people, tests of blood-type genes show that 160 have the genotype AA, 480 have the genotype AB, and 360 have the genotype BB.
12. What is the frequency of the A allele?
13. What is the frequency of the B allele?
14. What percentage of the population has type O blood?
15. Which factor is the most important in producing the variability that occurs in each generation of humans?
b. sexual recombination
c. genetic drift
d. nonrandom mating
e. natural selection
16. The Darwinian fitness of an individual is measured by
a. the number of its offspring that survive to...
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