Chapter 1: Ancient America Before 1492
ARCHAEOLOGY AND HISTORY
Archaeologists focus on physical objects such as bones, spears, pots, baskets, jewelry, clothing and buildings. Historians direct attention to writings, letters, and diary entries. North Americans in 1492 possessed many forms of symbolic representation, but not writing. People who lived during the millennia invented hundreds of spoken languages, learned to survive in every natural environment and they learned and taught from one another.
THE FIRST AMERICANS
First human beings who arrived in the Western Hemisphere emigrated from Asia. (Hunting skills, weapon and tool making techniques) First Americans hunted large mammals (mammoths) they processed them for food, clothing, and building materials. 97% of the Homosapiens have been on earth, none migrated to the Western Hemisphere. Beringia opened a passageway hundreds of miles wide between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Paleo-Indians traveled in small groups of no more than 25 people. Massive glaciers covered most of present day Canada when humans first arrived. Paleo-Indians hunted mammoths and bison.
Some paleo-indians refrigerated killed mammoths by filling the intestines with stones and sinking the carcasses to the bottom of an icy lake. After mammoths and other big animals became extinct Paleo-Indians started hunting on smaller animals and devoted more energy to foraging. (Nuts, berries…)
ARCHAIC HUNTERS AND GATHERERS
Indians hunted with spears but also used traps, nets, and hooks. Most Archaic Indians migrate from place to place to harvest plants and animals. Did not establish permanent villages.
GREAT PLAINS BISON HUNTERS
Folsom hunters moved all the time to maintain contact with their prey
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