Geology Final Exam

Topics: Plate tectonics, Fault, Igneous rock Pages: 6 (1687 words) Published: October 27, 2014

Describe in basic terms how elements were/are formed during the big bang (including the reasons why only H/He formed abundantly), during normal stellar operation (including why some elements such as Si and Fe were formed more abundantly), and during supernova processes/explosion Big bang

only thing that forms out of the big bang is the nuetrons. Protons plus electrons = hydrogen. Hydrogen fuses the helium. There are no stable atoms with 5 or 8 nucleons (hydrogen would have 5, helium would have 8), therefore fusion stops at helium. Normal steller processes

Elements form by fusion of lighter elements and heavier elements into heavier elements. They release energy. Elements with mulitples of 4 nucleons are most abundant because they combine helium. Fusion stops at iron

Supernova processes
R, S, P processes form elements denser than iron
What are the basic types of radioactive decay? Why does each occur (relative to the band of stability) and what happens during each process? Alpha
Atom spits out two protons and two neutrons from its nucleus Beta
Neutron turns into a proton plus and electron
Gamma
Nucleus changes from higher energy state to a lower energy state through the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Electron capture, beta decay, alpha decay
What are volatile and refractory elements and how does this relate to elemental abundances on earth? Volatile
Elements that become liquid or gas at low temperatures
Refractory
Those stable as solids to very high temperatures
When solar system formed, temperatures were hotter near the center and cooler as we moved away from the sun. Close to the sun only refractory elements condense at hotter areas. Volatile elements condensed in outer solar system where its cooler Define mineral

Naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and characteristic crystal structure Know at least three methods of identifying minerals and a couple of examples for each method (e.g. luster-greasy) Color

For example, calcite is commonly white
Hardness
Rubbing the rock against the glass plate
Magnetic
Put a magnet to the rock and see how its magnetic field is
Luster
Look at mineral in light and see how the light is reflected
What was the evidence for continental drift (list is sufficient) Land masses were originally pangea, until that broke up
The species of shells and fossils found on separate continents, The close fit of the coastlines of Africa and South America
The matching of the Appalachian Mountains to the Scottish Highlands The distinctive rock strata of areas of South Africa and Brazil. Explain how the discovery of symmetrical magnetic bands in the ocean floor brought about the confirmation of plate tectonics Molten lava contains iron that lines up with the existing magnetic field. When the lava cools, these iron domains lock into the orientation they had. North an south poles for earth flip periodically. Time between pole flips

Correlation with age (youngest at mid ocean ridge and symmetrically older as we go away from that) Conclusion: new ocean crust forms at mid ocean ridges and pushes out in both directions What are the three primary types of plate boundaries, and the major variations for these types? Divergent

Where the plates separate
Tensional stress
Convergent
Where they collide
Compressional stress
Transform
Where they slide past each other
Shear stress
Be able to draw the rock cycle

Know that igneous rocks are described by texture and composition, know the primary textures (intrusive/Phaneritic and extrusive/Aphanitic), the primary compositions (ultramafic/mafic/intermediate/felsic) and the rock types that lie at the intersection of each of these textures and compositions Igneous rocks

Described by:
Texture
Intrusive – Phaneritic
Extrusive – Aphanitic
Composition
Ultramafic -
Mafic
Intermediate
Felsic

Felsic Intermediate MAfie Ultramafic Intermediate
Intrusive
(Platonic) Granite
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