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Geography Exam Notes

By xquanquan Feb 18, 2013 3370 Words
Geo Notes
The Rock Cycle

Transforming Rocks

* The continental renewal of the surface if the earth
* The ‘cycle’ transform in 3 ways
* Erosion
* Ice
* Water
* Wind
* Heat
* Pressure
* Sediment
Rock material evolves under changing physical conditions at or beneath the earth’s surface

* Calcification
* As water evaporates, water from the bottom comes up. Nutrients and calcium gets drawn to the surface. That process creates a poisonous layer * Leaching
* Moves water through the soil and removes all of the nutrients

Theory of Continental Drift

* Alfred Wegener put forth the theory of continental drift in 1915

Jigsaw fit of continent
* Continent look like they could be fit almost perfectly
* See the east coast of South America and the West Coast of Africa

Climate Fit
* Scientist found evidence of glaciers in placed which no longer get snow * Striation (gouges in rock caused by glacial movement) found in the bedrock in India

Fossil Fit
* Scientist found fossil remains of certain animals and plants on both sides of the Atlantic * Somewhere fresh water species

Geological Fit
* Mountain ranges and soil samples were found it be similar on both sides of the Atlantic * Appalachian (N.A) & Caledonian (Scandinavia) Mountain ranges

Into the Earth
* As you travel towards the Earth’s core both temperature and density increases * Therefore, each layer of the Earth ‘floats’ on the layer below it * Convection current move the plates around

* Where plates meet/separate, earthquake, and volcanoes and mountain occurrence * All of this action occurs at the plate boundaries

Climate vs. Weather

* Long term pattern of weather
* 40 years per average
* Focus on temperature on precipitation
* Two primary types of climates
* Maritime
* Located close to large bodies of water
* Continental
* Located away from large bodies of water
* Climate affects
* Where we live
* What food we grow
* How we construct buildings
* Travel
* Major Climate events
* Ice age
* Global warming
* Drought

* Day to day condition of the atmosphere
* Weather Variables Reported:
* High/low temperature
* Wind Speed
* Precipitation
* Humidity
* Etc.
* Weather influenced
* Clothes we wear
* Activity we do
* Major weather events
* Hurricanes
* Tornadoes
* Heat waves
* Snow storm
* Etc.

Canada’s Eco zones

* A large scale region based on its unique ecological characteristics * Canada has 20 eco zones (15 terrestrial, 5 marines)
* Each eco zone is distinguished from other by its unique vegetation, wildlife, climate, landforms and human activities * Eco zones are useful for general national reporting, research and for placing Canada’s ecosystem diversity in a North American or global context

Longitude and Latitude

* The geographic canter of the world is the Gulf of Guinea off the west coast of Africa at 0º to 0º

Imaginary parallel lines running each and west diving the world into degrees north/south of the equator (Approx. 111 km apart)



Primary line
Equator at 0º
* Divides the world into Northern Southern hemisphere

Other lines
= Tropic of Cancer (Northern) = 23.5º N
= Tropic of Capricorn (Southern) = 23.5 º S

= Arctic Circle (Northern) = 66º N
= Atlantic Circle (Southern) = 66º S

Imaginary lines running North/South dividing the world into degrees east/west of the Prime Meridian


Primary Line
Prime Meridian at 0º
* Divides the world into Eastern/Western hemispheres
* Runs through Greenwich, England

Other lines
International Date Line at 180º
* Zigzags around land through the Pacific Ocean
* If you cross the IDL moving west, you add a day
* If you cross IDL moving East, you subtract a day

Time zones

* Created by Sandford Fleming in the late 1900s
* Necessary response to the development of rapid transport and the fact that morning should be morning everywhere

How it works
* The earth rotates around its axis every 24 hours
* Therefore there’s 24 time zones
* Since the earth is 360º360º/24 time zones = 15º
* Therefore each time zone is 15º wide
* Every place within any single time zone is called Standard Time (S.T.) * The primary time zone is centered on the Prime Meridian is called Universal Time (U.T) * Canada has 5.5 time zones (Pacific, Mountain, Central, Eastern, Atlantic and Newfoundland) * The Earth is like a circle

* Therefore, is made up of 360º
* Takes earth 24 hours to rotate once or 360 degrees
* Considering there’s 24 time zones, each time zone is made up of 15º * 360/24=15
* The time zones in Canada are
* Pacific
* Mountain
* Central
* Eastern
* Atlantic
* Newfoundland

Colliding Continents

* The first rock that was formed and cooled was called a craton * 3.8 billion years ago, organisms began using photosynthesis * Convection Currents is what drives the plate tectonics
* The first super continent was named Valbara
* 1.1 billion ago another super continent was created and named Rodinia * The super continent created after Rodinia, was called Gondwana * After Gondwana, it was Pangaea
* The next super continent would be called Pangaea Ultima * A rift is when an area is breaking apart
* A super a continent can cause extreme weathers like hot summers and extremely cold winters along with creating an Ice Age * There’ll be another 250 years until another Super Continent

Canada’s Geologic History

* The earth is 4.6 billion years old
* 87.6% of the earth’s age is the Precambrian Era
* The Canadian Shield was created
* Looked like many mountains
* Made up of Igneous, metamorphic, and some sedimentary * Now, newer mountains replace the old one
* Created by faulting and folding
* 0.7% was the Paleozoic Era
* Erosion happened and sediments moved across the Shield * It moved across the rivers and sedimentary rocks were created * The three most important things we find in this rock is: * Oil

* Gas
* Coal
* Pangaea was also created
* Along with the Appalachian mountains
* Then the extinction of all plants and animals
* Mesozoic Era took up 3.9% of the years
* Pangaea started to break up
* Mostly seas and swamps covered Canada
* The Rocky Mountains started to form
* Dinosaurs lived on the east to this region
* Found limestone and fossils for proof
* To protect that site, there’s now a provincial park around it * To end the era, there was a massive extinction
* Theory is that an asteroid collided with the earth * 1.4% of the years are to the Cenozoic Era
* During this Era, Canada became the landforms they are now * 2 million years ago there was a big Ice Age
* It was signified by glaciers
* The Great Lakes were then created
* Large amounts of clay, silt, sand and gravel were dumped into the lowlands * It also created the current patterns of the lakes, rivers, hills, and plains * There was 4 to 5 glacial periods in the era

* The glaciers are not found in the Arctic and Mountains * The extinction of the dinosaurs happened
* Along with the increase of mammals and water
* Pollution increase
* More lakes, rivers, and dams

The power of Ice

* Avalanches make very little damage
* Ice makes more damage
* For snow to change into rock hard ice, it’ll take 20 years * Glaciers are known to me near most mountains
* Antarctica’s ice sheet is approximately 4 km thick
* Nowadays, we are considered to be in an Ice Age
* Because North America and South America joined, creating little islands, the warm water was forced to rush up stream into the Gulfs * Which brought moisture to the cold regions
* Resulting more snow
* In the last million years the ice advanced about 8 times * Glaciers move
* The last ice age began approx. 100000 -> 6000
* And ended 1-2 million -> 6000
* The ice advanced and retreated 4 times
* There is two kinds of glaciers
* Alpine
* Continental

The Great Lakes

* It’s 10 000 years since glaciers have been in Southern Ontario * The great lakes were created by
* Ice depressed land
* Rock inside glacier scraped out land
* Glaciers retrieved
* Melted ice filled the holes

Climate Key Terms

* Climate Graph
* Show the temperature (line) and precipitation (bar) characteristics for a climate station * Average Temperature
* Add the monthly temperatures and divide it by 12
* Temperature Range
* The difference between the lowest and highest temperature * < 25º C = Maritime
* > 25ºC = Continental
* Total Precipitation
* Add the total precipitation
* Indicated whether a climate station is dry or wet
* >1000mm – Maritime
* <1000mm – Continental
* Seasonal Distribution
* Indicates the season (winter or summer) that generates the majority of precipitation * Winter = Maritime
* Summer= Continental

* During condensation, the vapor cools and changes from invisible gas to liquid water * Condensed vapor creates clouds
* As air rises, it cools down and expands due to less air pressure

Relief Precipitation
* Is also known as an Orographic Precipitation
* As air passes over a mountain
* The air becomes colder
* The moisture expands and cools
* As the cloud rides over the mountains, and expands, it lets out rain * Therefore, there’s more rain on the windward than the leeward

Convectional Precipitation
* This current precipitation is more involved with summer * It’s most experienced at the Prairie Provinces, Ontario, and Quebec * The precipitation can be dangerous due to the fact it causes tornadoes * Other weathers could be thunderstorms or hail

Cyclonic Precipitation
* Also referred to Frontal Precipitation
* Mostly occurs in the Winter
* An extreme example is a Blizzard


* In the North regions, where the Tundra is, the land is basically frozen. * This is also known as Permafrost
* Tundra and the Boreal & Taiga forest is separated by the tree line * Marks the Northern boundary of the tree growth
* Recognized by the needle leaved trees
* For example Black Spruce and Balsam Fir and Pine
* The Grasslands are basically grass
* Cordilleran is very different from the others
* Above the tree line there’s meadows of flowers and shrubs * Hot dry valleys it’s hot and contain cactuses
* In the West Coast Forest is mild and moist
* Deciduous Forest is the warmest
* Mixed forest is a transition zone between the boreal forest and deciduous * Therefore there’s coniferous and deciduous trees

Factors Affecting Climate in Canada

Air masses
Prevailing winds
Nearest to water
Ocean currents
Learn Everything about Parachuting Not Only Landing

* Latitude
* The closer you are to the Equator the warmer it is
* The sun gives off the same energy, it Is just stretched over a distance * Therefore, it takes more to warm up Canada then Africa * Elevations
* The higher you get, the colder it becomes
* The air expands as it gets higher
* As it expands it loses heat
* Air Masses
* Knowing the volume of the air mass it will give a better understanding of how hot, cold or dry the air is * Over the ocean, the air mass has more moisture
* As it rises it releases the moisture, creating rain * Because continental isn’t near a large body of water, it’s dry * Prevailing Winds
* The winds tend to move the air masses from West to East * High and low pressure belts created established patterns of the wind * Nearest to water
* Air masses that originate over water will contain more moisture and will be cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter * Ocean Currents
* Climates are affected by the point of origin of the ocean currents * Temperature of an ocean current affect the temperature of the air mass passing over it * Landforms
* Air masses are heavy with moisture
* As the air mass pass over mountains it lets go of the moisture and rain falls * At the top, the rain will become snow
* As the air comes down from the other side, the air mass will be dry and cause little precipitation

Global Warming/Climate changes

* Positives
* More land can be used (North)
* Tourism
* Longer growing season
* Warmer winters
* Negatives
* Increases diseases
* Cancer
* Respiratory problems
* Etc.
* Potential ice age triggers
* Increased natural disasters
* Loss of habitat and wildlife species
* Global warming is the average increase in the Earth’s temperature * Climate change is a naturally occurring event that includes both warming and cooling * Some greenhouse gases (GHG) are:

* Nitrogen
* Oxygen
* Methane
* Nitrous oxide
* Water
* Carbon Dioxide
* GHG became a problem during
* The industrial revolution
* Oil burned for engines heat energy
* Fossil Fuels
* Released GHG
* Increased pollution
* Global Warming
* One of the big GHG in Canada is
* Tar sands
* Creates 10x amount of GHG than regular crude
* Every year we add 25 billion tons of Carbon into the atmosphere * Temperatures are predicted to rise between 1.4ºC to 5.8ºC over the next century * With global warming we’ll see
* Floods
* Droughts
* Storms
* Hurricanes
* Fires
* Melting ice
* Fish population decreases
* Animal extinction
* Habitat loss
* Displacement
* Agriculture problems
* New goal is to pump the carbon back where it needs to be


* Our magic number is 100 000
* There is 100 000 cm in 1 km
* Ratio Scale
* 1:200 000
* It means that 1 unit on the map is equal to 200 000 of the same units on the earth surface * Statement Scale
* 1cm = 2km
* If the distance measured between two places on the map is 1 cm =, the actual distance on the earth’s surface is 2 km * Linear Scale
* 02468

* The line is divided into units (km) that represent the actual unit on the ground. In this case 1 cm represents 2 km on the earth’s surface

National Parks

* Quinttinirpaaq National Park
* Located on Elsmere island
* Landform is Innuitions Mountains
* Because it so up North, not many people go to travel there * Majority go there to be adventurous
* The camp base is 450 miles from the North Pole
* The park receives only 75-100 visitors per year

* Fathom Five Marine Park
* Located at Southern Ontario
* Scuba diver’s paradise
* Because of the 22 sunken ship
* There’s also clear water
* Letting the sun get 75 feet into the water
* It also has the biggest population of amphibians and reptiles * The trees there are to be over 1800 years old

* Prince Edward Island National Park
* Holds the most famous story of Anne Shirley Green Gabe * Attract many Japanese tourists
* Yanky Gale’s seas are known to become rough at one point

* Spirit Bear Provincial Park
* Located in British Columbia
* One of the few remaining stands of coastal tempret rainforest in the world * Kermode Bears are a very unique specie
* Story is that the ravens saw the need for change
* Every 10th black bear he saw he’s turn it white * Only way to get into the park is by boat

* Dinosaur Provincial Park
* Located in Alberta
* Has one of the greatest dinosaur fossil collection
* It is even possible to help with the dig
* It is also the home to the Peregrine Falcon
* It was nearly extinct due to hunting and pesticides

* Nahanni National Park
* Located in the Northwest Territories
* It’s declared a world heritage for it is very unique * The rivers are good for white-water rafting
* Because there’s large deposits of calcium, it formed tufa mounds * They’re so fragile that tourists are asked to walk barefoot while exploring them

* Gwaii Hanaas National Park
* Located in British Columbia
* Made up in 138 islands
* One of them contain totem poles which attract many tourists * Many of them have been removed and placed in museums * The water also contains more protein/cubic foot than any other in the world

* Cape Breton Highlands National Park
* Landform is Highlands/Appalachians
* Located in Nova Scotia
* Mostly known for its Cabot trails
* Tatshenshini National Park
* Located in British Columbia and Yukon
* It is the home of the Grizzly Bear
* The rang of animals is 2000 square miles
* To get to the park you need to take the boat
* That will take basically 13 days
* Banff National Park
* Landform is the Western Cordillera
* Is the first national park to be established in Canada * There’s a town right in the middle of it
* There is many recreational activities to do

* Point Peele
* Landform is the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Lowlands * Pukuskvoa
* Landform is Canadian Shield
* Riding Mountains
* Landform is Interior Plains


Melting Pot- an environment in which many ideas and races are socially assimilated Culture- the beliefs, traditions, and religion of a person
Multicultural Society- a society of multiple cultures
Immigrant- Someone moving to a another country permanently
Emigrant- Someone leaving the country permanently
Push Factor- What causes someone to leave
Pull Factor- What causes someone to arrive at the country
Landed Immigrant- Once immigrated to Canada
Independent Immigrant- When immigrating alone. Assed using a point system Family Immigrant- When a family member Is already in Canada and is sponsoring their family over to Canada also Refugees- A refugee is a person who fears persecution or death in his/her country and Canada takes pity and places them in the refugee category Cultural Baggage- Bringing a person’s traditions to Canada

Independent Immigrant
* Skilled business worker
* Must get more than 70 points on the point system
* Must be willing to work
* Business worker
* Only need 25 points
* Must make a big financial impact on Canada’s economy * Point System
* To determine a person’s knowledge
* Must score certain points to enter Canada
* Can sometimes be cheated
* Unfair to others
* Have the smarts but may falter in an area which rejects their entrance * Allows mostly people from age 24 to 44
* Bring many experienced people and the best of the best

Topographic Maps

* Are large scaled map showing both natural and human features * Read right then up
* Must have 6 digits
* Contour Lines
* Areas of equal elevation
* Contour interval is the elevation difference
* The contour interval is most found at the bottom of the map * If the line are close then it shows that the land is steep * If they are far from each other then it’s gently steeped

Environment and Economy

Canadian Resource and Primary Industry
* Rule of Primary Industries
* To collect raw materials that occur naturally in/on the earth in order to create products, make money and employ people * Ex.
* Forestry
* Fishing
* Mining
* Agriculture
* Water
* Energy
* Types of raw material/resources
* Renewable
* With little effort these resources should last forever * Ex.
* Trees
* Farming products
* Water
* Non renewable
* Resources that are finite (have a fish limit)
* Ex.
* Minerals
* Oil/gas
* Fish
* Two different perspective about Resource Management
* Industry view
* Resources should be used in order to supply people with the “necessitates” of life, create jobs, and make money * Environmental views
* Resources are something we need to protect and maintain forever * These two sides are fundamentally opposed to one another * Government
* The role of government is to make decisions on land use based upon input from: Industry, Environmentalists, Experts/Processors, Natives and people who live nearest to the land * Sustainable Development

* Literal Translation
* Continuous Growth
* Geographic Translations
* To meet the needs of today without sacrificing the needs of the future generations

Residential Schools

* Kids were forced to attend the school because of the Indian Act * When arrived at the school, the kids are given “white” names * The gasoline is used to wash everything off their heads * Hair cuts

* Cleaned up
* The atmosphere is tense and fearful
* The teachers view the children as savages
* The other children viewed them as stupid people who aren’t capable of doing anything * Main obstacle for the kids is language barrier
* The Europeans believed that in time and care the children would be beautiful and awesome * But first they had to get rid of every remains of their culture and past * In the schools, there’s possibly

* Mental abuse
* Physical abuse
* Verbal abuse
* Sexual abuse

Essay Organizer

Thesis: The increase of immigration is good for Canada

Argument 1: It increases the multiculturalism in the country Support 1: In the 21st century, approximately 200,000 immigrants come to Canada each year. All of these people bring their own language, culture, and religion with them to Canada. Support 2: Immigrants or descendants of immigrants make up 98% of Canada

Argument 2: Wider job range
Support 1: In 2006, Canada received 236,756 immigrants. It is in the obvious that they all would be looking for a job to support themselves and/or their families. Thus the creations of different jobs Support 2: The percentage of a Canadian holding a job increased from 41.6% to 51.3%

Argument 3: The economy becomes better
Support 1: The employment rate is 63.6%
Support 2: in 2008 there’s a percentage of 11.7% with part time jobs while there’s 51.9% with full time jobs

Conclusion: Therefore, immigration to Canada would benefit the country a lot.

Cite This Document

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