Fundamentals of Plant Protection

Topics: Insect, Lepidoptera, Entomology Pages: 45 (12712 words) Published: August 28, 2013
COLLEGE OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Student Handout MODULE: Fundamentals of Plant Protection UNIT: Entomology

Year 1 Semester 2

Compiled by: Karma Penjore & Dr. Jamba Gyeltshen August 2009 Updated by Ugyen Yangchen March 2013

CONTENT
Introduction to entomology ........................................................................3 A Class of Distinction ................................................................................................ 3 The Dominance of Insects ......................................................................................... 4 Why are insects so successful? .................................................................................. 5 Economic importance - how do insects affect us? ..................................................... 6 Features of Arthropods .............................................................................................. 7

Classification of Insects ..............................................................................9 Insect orders ............................................................................................................... 9 Insect orders of agricultural importance .................................................................. 11

Insect morphology ....................................................................................13 Head ......................................................................................................................... 13 Antennae .............................................................................................................. 13 Eyes ...................................................................................................................... 16 Mouthparts ........................................................................................................... 16 The insect thorax ...................................................................................................... 20 Legs ...................................................................................................................... 20 Wings ................................................................................................................... 21 Abdomen and external genitalia .............................................................................. 25

Reproduction in insects .............................................................................27 How do insects find their mates? ............................................................................. 27 Types of reproduction in insects .............................................................................. 27

Insect growth and development ................................................................27 Insect life cycle ........................................................................................................ 28 Metamorphosis ......................................................................................................... 29 Insect seasonal cycles .............................................................................................. 31 Larval forms ............................................................................................................. 32 Pupal forms .............................................................................................................. 33

Insect Collection .......................................................................................35 Purpose of collecting and preserving insects ........................................................... 35 Insect collection equipment and materials ............................................................... 36 Preserving insects..................................................................................................... 40 Hard-Bodied Insects............................................................................................. 40...
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