BIO- FINAL EXAM REVEW SHEET
This is a comprehensive review of material from exams 1-3. Please study your class notes/powerpoint slides and read the chapters listed in your syllabus to study for all new material. What are the characteristics of living organisms?
Acquire and use energy
Made up of other cells
Can replicate itself (can reproduce)
Population evolves (they evolve)
What are the characteristics of cells?
Contain genetic information
Can duplicate themselves
Have a cell membrane
Have a cytoplasm
The structure of a cell is closely correlated with its function Cells are dynamic thousands of chemical reactions occur in each second Most cells are capable of division
What is a scientific theory? How does this differ from everyday usage of the term “theory”? An explanation for a very general class of phenomena or observations that are supported by a wide body of evidence. A scientific theory summarizes a hypothesis of group of hypotheses that have been supported with repeated testing. If enough evidence accumulates to support a hypothesis, it moves to the next step- known as a theory- in the scientific method and becomes accepted as a valid explanation of a phenomenon When used in non-scientific context, the word “theory” implies that something is unproven or speculative. As used in science, however, a theory is an explanation or model based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning, especially one that has been tested and confirmed as a general principle helping to explain and predict natural phenomena Scientific theories are testable explanations, not speculative guesses What are the two components of a scientific theory?
Pattern component (based on observation)
Process component (based on experimentation)
The two critical components of a scientific theory is that it provides explanations and predictions that can be trusted Describe the cell theory
All organisms are made of cells.
The cell theory and theory of evolution address fundamental questions: What are organisms made of?
Where do they come from?
It also states that all organisms are made of cells (this formed only the first part of the cell theory). The complete cell theory can be stated as follows: “All organisms are made of cells, and all cells come from preexisting cells.” The cell theory was a direct challenge to the prevailing explanation of where cells come from, called spontaneous generation Pattern- all material is made of cells
Organisms and their characteristics change; living populations change Process- Pasteur’s experiment that rejected spontaneous
Field studies have proved this
What are the two main types of cells?
Describe prokaryotic cells with regard to: DNA storage/organization, site of protein synthesis, membranes. Have no membrane bound organelles
DNA is circular, organized in a nucleoid region
Protein synthesis takes place in ribosomes
DNA storage/organization DOES NOT have a nucleus but contains a nucleoid region where DNA is stored Site of protein synthesis: Proteins are synthesized in the ribosomes found in the prokaryotic cell Describe eukaryotic cells with regard to: DNA storage/organization, site of protein synthesis, membranes. Membrane bound organelles
DNA located in the nucleus
Proteins synthesized in both rough ER and ribosomes
What type of cells from Q6 have membrane bound organelles?
What are the advantages of membrane-bound organelles?
Reactions occur more efficiently
Has the ability to protect the cell from unwanted side effects
For the following cellular organelles (1) be able to identify and (2) describe their function: ribosomes, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth), peroxisome, lysosome, mitochondria, vacuoles, chloroplast Ribosomes- Synthesize proteins
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