Freshman Bio Final Study Guide

Topics: DNA, Protein, Chromosome Pages: 7 (1402 words) Published: June 19, 2013
BIO FINAL STUDY GUIDE
Scientific Method:
1) Observe something interesting
2) Educated idea = hypothesis (if – change/IV -… then – measure/DV… because) 3) Experiments
4) Analyze + conclude
5) Report it to world
Science| Pseudoscience|
-uses scientific method| -doesn’t use scientific method| -good hypothesis (falsifiable –provable)| -bad hypothesis (unfalsifiable)| -Repeatable + predictable| -unrepeatable|
-1 variable| -none or many variables|
-ex. Aliens, diets, monsters (big foot, loch ness)
* Good Graph: Measurement:
-density=mass/volume
-1 in=2.54 cm
-1 kg=2.2 lbs
-1 L=1.06
-Displacement method – submerge + measure water level distance -SURFACE AREA TO VOLUME RATIO 
SA/V decreases when object gets bigger
Surface area formula: h*b*6 (units^2)

BASIC CHEMISTRY
Importance of valance electrons: determines how an atom will bond Protons (+) = atomic number * Electrons (neutral) = # of protons
Neutrons (-) = atomic weight - # of protons
Ion: atom that gained or lost electrons (cation = positive, anion = negative) Atom: smallest part of an element (all chemical properties of an element) Isotope: same number of protons but different number of neutrons

-Ex. Carbon14 instead of carbon12 – 6 protons and 8 neutrons Covalent bond: sharing (3,4,5 rows)
Ionic bond: stealing (closest to 8 or 0)
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Organic molecule: carbon and hydrogen
4 types of organic macromolecules: carbohydrate, lipid, protein, nucleic acid Monomer: one piece
Polymer: many pieces
Hydrolysis- (H20 is needed) catabolic- to break *

Dehydration synthesis/polymerization-(makes longer polymer) Anabolic: to build *
CAPT enzyme lab: RESULTS
IV: type of enzyme
DV: amount of apple sauce filtered
Variables: amount of apple sauce, amount of enzyme
Control: water
Enzymes: pectinase and cellulase
THE CELL
Cell theory:
1. All living things are made up of cells
2. Cells are the fundamental units of life
3. Cells come from other cells
Viruses alive?
-NO. On their own they can do nothing until they enter a living cell. Without cells, viruses would not be able to multiply.  Prokaryotic| Same| Eukaryotic|
Bacteria/Archea| DNA| Animals, fungi, plants, protists|
No nucleus| Ribosomes| nucleus|
unicellular| cytoplasm| multicellular|
Virus-smallest prokaryotic-middle eukaryotic-biggest
MOLECULAR MOTION
Aerobic: energy needed
Anaerobic: no energy needed
Concentration gradient: unequal distribution of ions across the cell membrane (movement called diffusion) Passive transport: movement from high concentration to low concentration (no energy needed) 1) Diffusion-general (movement of any molecule)

-ex. Sugar dissolving into coffee cup
2) Osmosis- specific (movement of only one specific molecule) -ex. Salt sucking water *
Isotonic- (good) a solution with no effect on the passage of water in or out of the cell * Hypertonic- (bad) a solution that causes the cell to lose water * Hypotonic- (bad) a solution which causes the cell to take up water * Active transport: the movement of a substance across a membrane against its concentration gradient (requires energy/ATP and specific transport proteins) -Endocytosis-the process in which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell -active transport(in) – entering cell (ATP)
-phagocytosis – cell eating
-pinocytosis – cell drinking
-Exocytosis- the process in which a cell releases a particle by enclosing the particle in a vesicle that then moves to the cell surface and fuses with the cell membrane -active...
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