Freedom vs. Predestination
Perform a comparative analysis that reflects the difference between freedom and predestination.
Provide an example of each and reflect how these theories are applicable for today's society.
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ethical system: egoism? If they must always act in their own self- interest because that is simply the way they are made, then there is no use in telling them that they should or should not act in their own self- interest. Even ethical egoism is absurd if all human beings already have been programmed to act at all times in their own self- interest. A related problem inherent in determinism is this: What is the point of holding peo-ple morally responsible— blaming, praising, rewarding, or punishing them— for what they do or fail to do if they cannot help what they do? As you can see, the freedom- versus- determinism controversy has powerful implica-tions for morality and moral responsibility, and we will explore these implications in greater detail later. TYPES AND THEORIES OF DETERMINISM The various arguments and theories supporting determinism go far back in time, but they have become increasingly compelling as they have extended their reach into the twenti-eth and twenty- first centuries. These arguments and theories arise out of all aspects of human endeavor and concern: from religion; from the physical and natural sciences; and from history, economics, and psychology. Let’s examine the arguments for determinism that have arisen from each of these areas. Religious Determinism— Predestination Religious determinism, or predestination, is derived from the attributes assigned, espe-cially in the chief Western religions ( Judaism, Christianity, and Islam), to some supernatu-ral being. These attributes are omnipotence ( being all- powerful) and omniscience ( being all- knowing)....
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