Flyer Envelope

Topics: Database normalization, Third normal form, Relational model Pages: 4 (1145 words) Published: October 13, 2014
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Database Concept
Overview of DBMS
Database Architecture
Database Model
Codd's rule
RDBMS Concept
Database key
Normalization
E-R Diagrams
Generalization and
Specialization
SQL Concept
SQL Introduction
DDL Command
Create query
Alter query
Truncate, Drop and Rename
query
DML Command
All DML command
TCL Command
All TCL Command
DCL Command
All DCL Command
WHERE clause
SELECT query
LIKE clause
ORDER BY clause
Group BY clause
Having clause
DISTINCT keyword
AND & OR operator
Advance SQL
SQL Constraints
SQL function

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Normalization of Database
Database Normalisation is a technique of organizing the data in the database. Normalization is a systematic approach of decomposing tables to eliminate data redundancy and undesirable characteristics like Insertion, Update and Deletion Anamolies. It is a multi-step process that puts data into tabular form by removing duplicated data from the relation tables.

Normalization is used for mainly two purpose,
Eliminating reduntant(useless) data.
Ensuring data dependencies make sense i.e data is logically stored.

Problem Without Normalization
Without Normalization, it becomes difficult to handle and update the database, without facing data loss. Insertion, Updation and Deletion Anamolies are very frequent if Database is not Normalized. To understand these anomalies let us take an example of Student table.

S_id

S_Name

S_Address

Subject_opted

401

Adam

Noida

Bio

402

Alex

Panipat

Maths

403

Stuart

Jammu

Maths

404

Adam

Noida

Physics

Updation Anamoly : To update address of a student who occurs twice or...
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