DAY/TIME: MTH / 7:30 – 12:00 DATE: 06 / 19 /14
TITLE: INTRODUCTION TO EXPERIMENTATION
Introduction to experimentation aims to familiarize the students with some of the logic of research. The materials used are pencil and paper, stop watch with second hand. The procedure of the experiment was: The experimenter (E) instructed the subject (S) to write the alphabet backward (from Z to A) as rapidly as possible. There will be 5 trials of 30 seconds each with a one-minute rest between trials. After the first trial S’s reported orally the number of letters written and to estimate the number expected in the second trial. After the second, third and fourth trials S’s reported the number estimated, the number achieved and the number estimated for the next trial. After the fifth trial only the estimated and achieved scores were reported. The subject was female, 18 years old and BS-Psychology Major. It was found out that the participant has a rise and fall achieved score while in the group mean revealed that the majority of the respondents got perfect achieved score in the fifth trial. It was concluded that practicing, conditioning and focusing influence the learning processes of an individual and the Subject has maintained the chunks of memory in writing the alphabet in a backward manner.
An experiment is an orderly procedure carried out with the goal of verifying, refuting, or establishing the validity of a hypothesis. Controlled experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. A child may carry out basic experiments to understand the nature of gravity, while teams of scientists may take years of systematic investigation to advance the understanding of a phenomenon. Experiments can vary from personal and informal natural comparisons (e.g. tasting a range of chocolates to find a favorite), to highly controlled (e.g. tests requiring complex apparatus overseen by many scientists that hope to discover information about subatomic particles). In the scientific method, an experiment is an empirical method that arbitrates between competing models orhypotheses. Experimentation is also used to test existing theories or new hypotheses in order to support them or disprove them. According to some Philosophies of science, an experiment can never "prove" a hypothesis, it can only add support. Similarly, an experiment that provides a counterexample can disprove a theory or hypothesis. An experiment must also control the possible confounding factors—any factors that would mark the accuracy or repeatability of the experiment or the ability to interpret the results. Confounding is commonly eliminated through scientific control and/or, inrandomized experiments, through random assignment. In engineering and other physical sciences, experiments are a primary component of the scientific method. They are used to test theories and hypotheses about how physical processes work under particular conditions (e.g., whether a particular engineering process can produce a desired chemical compound). Typically, experiments in these fields will focus onreplication of identical procedures in hopes of producing identical results in each replication. Random assignment is uncommon. In medicine and the social sciences, the prevalence of experimental research varies widely across disciplines. When used, however, experiments typically follow the form of the clinical trial, where experimental units (usually individual human beings) are randomly assigned to a treatment or control condition where one or more outcomes are assessed. In contrast to norms in the physical sciences, the focus is typically on the average treatment effect (the difference in outcomes between the treatment and control groups) or another test statistic produced by the experiment. A single study will...
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