4 basic principles of medical ethics
"above all, do no harm"
act in ways that don't cause needless harm or injury
"to help or at least to do no harm"
promote the positive welfare
bring about greatest benefit and least harm to greatest number of people define justice
people receive that to which they are entitled, that their rights are recognized and protected define autonomy
right of every adult human being freely to make and act upon decisions regarding his or her own life Valid consent can only occur if...
competent decision-maker has been given adequate info and is allowed to make the decision voluntarily w/o coersion. Requirements of valid informed consent:
What is the difference between competence and decisional capacity? What are the standards for surrogate decision making?
when pt. lacks capacity to make a treatment decision
What are the three kinds of futility?
Physiological: It will not workProbabilistic: It probably wont workQualitative: It make work, is it worth the burden? What is the difference between a positive and a negative right Neg: Gov. and society cant interferePos: (entitlement) gov. and society are obligated to provide means What are the three challenges to the “ethical project”?
list four reasons people come to different ethical conclusions. Difference in...FactsBeliefs LoyaltiesReasoning
Three challenges to the “ethical project”
relativism, determinism, and subjectivism
Peter Singer's beliefs on animals?
Deserve same protection or more as humans
Peter Singer's beliefs on infanticide:
Should have up to 2 years to decide if you want to keep the child.killing severely handicapped baby may not be as serious as killing a happy cat Peter Singer's beliefs on active euthanasia:
Peter Singer's belief on bestiality:
not inherently or necessarily wrong if it doesn't harm the animal Four levels of the ring:
out-particular judgementrulesprinciplesinside-basic convictions (world view) Define norm:
a concrete action-guide; a law for living, guideline defined by some recognized authority Define principle;
broad moral guidelines more foundational and universal than rules. Define worldview:
conclusive set of beliefs, way we put our world together.
Components of a case study include: _______ question, narrative, patient demographics, informants, assessment, discussion & ___________ ethics, recommendations
To avoid the charge of ethical voluntarism Christians can link Gods _________ with his _________ commands, character
A world religion considered to be an example of ethical voluntarism is _______ ethics Islamic
The central virtue in Christian ethics is: ______
The central concept that unifies the OT ethics is _________ which means qadosh holiness
In the OT obedience to the law is seen primarily as ________ to God loyalty
The Ceremonial law:
governed Israels worship
The Civil law:
governs social relations & institutions
The moral law
foundation of OT ethics
law of moses
moral reasoning which is absent in scripture
moral reasoning- revelation of God's values outside of scripture- proverbs contains observations of right & wrong from nature of human relationships- Isaiah, Jeremiah & Ezekiel are all good examples.. natural law
moral reasoning found in the covenant blessings & curses- national obedience & loyalty to the covenant results in blessings while disobedience leads to curses egoism
moral reasoning found in proverbs; contains descriptions of consequences of certain actions & or certain character traits -praises wisdom for the goodness it creates & warns against folly because of the harmful consequences. Utilitarian
moral reasoning found in mosaic law; emphasizes principles that are dependent on the character of God deontological
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