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By Lorraine Dell-Hermosilla Sep 20, 2014 572 Words
Forebrain - highest part
a) Diencephalon
b) Telencephalon/Cerebrum or Cortex - largest part of human brain, highly wrinkled (thought & action)
Thalamus - major sensory relay center, regulates CNS & PNS
Hypothalamus - ventral to thalamus (homeostasis, emotion, thirst, hunger, circadian rhythm, control of autonomic nervous system) [controls pituitary gland]

Main structures
a. Limbic system - collection of structures w/in forebrain (emotional brain in memories, emotions, decisions, motivation, learning)
b. Amygdala - control of emotional behavior
c. Hippocampus - process of learning & memory (Malfunction: Alzheimer's disease)
d. Basal Ganglia - group of brain structures; for movement (posture) [Parkinson's disease if involuntary]
e. Cerebral Hemispheres - 2 Large structures (Left & Right Hemisphere) [Right: creativity, Left: Logic)
corpus callosum - bundle of axons whch connects 2 hemispheres

Lobes of Cerebral Cortex
a. Frontal Lobe - reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, problem solving
b. Parietal Lobe - movement, orientation, recognition, perception to stimuli
c. Occipital Lobe - visual processing
d. Temporal Lobe - perception & recognition of auditory stimuli, memory & speech

Midbrain - smallest of the division of brain, at top of brain stem (centers for auditory & visual reflexes)
midbrain, pons, & medulla are referred together as the brainstem

Hindbrain - lowest part, at rear base of skull (made of cerebellum, pons and medulla)
a. Cerebellum - regulates reflexes & balance, coordinates movement [Damage cause ataxia]
b. Pons - motor control & sensory analysis
c. medulla - controlling heartbeat & breathing [chewing, swallowing, sneezing, coughing, salivation] Reticular Formation - lattice-like network of nerve cells w/in medulla which controls person's state of arousal, sleep- waking cycle

Spinal cord - stem-like running down vertebral column, composed nerves that lead to and from the brain -> receives sensory info to the brain and transmits motor impulses from brain to muscles (sensory-motor-reflexes) CENTER OF REFLEX REACTIONS

Monosynaptic - direct connection of sensory neuron & motor neuron w/o intervening interneuron Polysynaptic - many synapses in several countless interneuron

PNS - connect CNS to organs, limbs and skin
axons - nerves that make up PNS

Parts of PNS
1) Somatic Nervous System - carries sensory [voluntary movement] & motor info to and from CNS ("soma" - body)
2) Autonomic Nervous System - regulates involuntary body functions (breathing, heartbeat)
Sympathetic - flight or fight responses
Parasympathetic - normal body function & conserves physical resources

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM - uses chemicals called hormones to communicate hormones - specified messenger molecule synthesized & secreted by endocrine gland which are ductless

Endocrine Glands
1) Pituitary Gland - master gland, under control of hypothalamus
Follicle stimulating hormone - causes fomation of sperm & egg cell
Luteinizing Hormone - causes ovulation & maturation of egg & sperm cells
Antidiuretic Hormone - prevent excess water excretion by kidneys (Ethanol releases this)
Diuretics - prescribed for high blood, interfere production of ADH, kidneys secrete more water
Endorphins - produced in response to pain (belong to chemicals "opiates")

2) Thyroid Gland - thyroid hormones (thyroxin) regulate metabolism (body temp & weight). It contains iodine to manufacture this hormones (Defect: Goiter)
3) Pancreas - ducted gland, secreting digestive enzymes in small intestine
Islets of Langerhans- secrete insulin (take excess glucose out of circulation, to lower blood level) & glucagon (tells liver to take carbohydrate out to raise sugar level)Diabetes mellitus

4) Adrenal Glands - on top of kidneys with outer cortex & inner medulla
medulla - secretes epinephrine(adrenaline) in stressors (fright, anger, caffeine, low blood sugar)
cortex - secretes corticosteroids (anti-inflammatory) such as cortisone

5) Gonads or sex organs - secretes sex hormones controlled by pituitary gland hormones (FSH & LH)
male - androgens, testosterone
female - estrogen , progesterone

6) Pineal Gland - located near center of brain , stimulated by nerves from eyes (Melatonin promotes sleep)
-> depressing activity of gonads, affects thyroid & adrenal cortex functions

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