Exam 2 Review

Topics: Bone, Skull, Skeletal system Pages: 12 (2556 words) Published: April 3, 2013
BSC 2093 A&P I Lecture
Exam 2 Review Sheet

Chapter 5: The Integumentary System

Know figure 5.1
Identify the different structures that make up the integument including the dermal layers, Sweat and Oil glands, and Nerve Corpuscles that exist there
Know that Skin accounts for 7% of the body weight (911 lbs) Know how to calculate percent skin from a given weight and vice versa.
Know the name, shape, and characteristics of the cell types that exist in the Epidermis
Keratinocytes  keratin producing cells that allow the skin to have its protective effect.
Melanocytes  the spidershaped cells that produce melanin, a dark pigment.
Merkel Cells  Spikedlike hemisphere cell important for touch sensation
Langerhan=s cells  Starshaped macrophages that help activate our immune system
Know the difference between Thick and Thin skin and where they can be found (Thick has five layers thin has four) - what=s the extra layer that thick skin has?
Know the names of the different Epidermal Layers, where they are located, and what cell types or characteristics can be associated with each layer.
Stratum Basale - Lower most layer where Melanocytes and Merkel Cells can be found
Stratum Corneum - Upper most layer Comprised primarily of dead cells
​Stratum Granulosum - Layer below Corneum and above Spinosum where keratinocytes can be found releasing granules of lipids and keratin.
Stratum Spinosum - The layer above Basale where Langerhan=s cells and Keratinocytes can be found
Know that the Dermis has two layers and their characteristics
Papillary  thin superficial layer made up of areolar connective tissue Reticular  Deeper and thicker layer made up of dense irregular connective tissue
Know the different proteins that contribute to skin color, what colors they contribute, and where they are located
Melanin (yellow, redishbrown, black)  comes from melanocytes What is the enzyme that synthesizes Melanin? tyrosinase

Carotene (yellow to orange)  comes from pigments in plants we eat and accumulates in fatty tissue of the hypodermis
Hemoglobin (Pinkish)  comes from the color of oxygenated blood
Know the different Skin Appendages and their characteristics Sebaceous (oil) glands  Secrete an oily secretion called Sebum which empties into the hair follicle and skin pores to soften the skin and hair and reduce water loss

Two Types of Sweat Glands

Eccrine  a coiled gland that sits below the surface of the skin and secretes sweat from a long tubular structure onto the skin Apocrine  Larger sweat glands that secretes sweat into the hair follicles

Nails (Nail Matrix, Cuticle)
Know that Nails and Hair are made up of hard keratin

Know the different Functions of the Integument and the different components that contribute to that function
Chemical Barrier
melanin  Prevents the effects of UV that can lead to skin cancer, acid pH  Low pH due to skin excretion,
sebum  Bactericidal substance
human defensin  natural antibiotic
cathelicidins  prevents streptococcus bacteria

Physical/Mechanical Barrier 
Keratin creates a hardness of skin while glycolipids prevent water loss and water penetration. Know the different Substances that can penetrate the skin barrier are Lipidsoluble substances  Oxygen, CO2, Fat soluble vitamins, and steroids Oleoresins  Poison Ivy and Poison Oak

Organic solvents  acetone, dry cleaning solution, paint thinner Salts of heavy metals  lead, mercury, and nickel
Drug agents called penetration enhancers
What is the chemotoxin that can be produced by Lime juice?
Biological Barrier  Langerhan=s cells are macrophage cells that activate immune response
Body Temperature Regulation  Sweating Cools the body, blood vessel constriction warms the body
Cutaneous Sensation (exteroceptors) 
Meissner=s corpuscles, Merkel Cells  Light pressure and tactile sensations Pacinian receptors  Deep pressure
Hair follicle...
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