Earth Science Study Guide

Topics: Plate tectonics, Sedimentary rock, Earth Pages: 11 (2484 words) Published: August 23, 2013
Jessica Dowdy
1/5/2011
A Block
A. Astronomy/ Space
1. Big Bang Theory:
a. The Big Bang Theory is the theory that the entire universe was once confined to a dense, hot, super massive ball then 12-17 billion years ago huge expansions occurred and material in the ball began moving out in all directions. Then, instant cooling ensued due to the expansion and thus the universe was born.

b. Individuals Roles in the BBT:
Edwin Hubble – Created the most powerful telescope of the time. Albert Einstein – Created E=mc2, but didn’t believe it was true, and hypothesized the speed of light. Le Maitre – Was a Catholic Priest with a science degree from M.I.T who provided faith in scientific theory and thought E=mc2 was true. It took all three of these men to develop the Big Bang Theory, then in the 1950’s Penzias and Wilson produced evidence of the B.B.T 2. Potential Fates of the Universe: An ice age could occur due to precession varying Earth’s motions. Or the Earth could go through expansion and eventually implode. 3. Nebular Hypothesis:

a. The Nebular Hypothesis is the hypothesis that states that the planets are formed when in a nebula gas and dust condense due to gravity and pressure, increasingly heating the center and causing the nebula to spin. Once the center of gravity and pressure heats significantly enough it will begin to grow and form a protostar. This protostar then becomes a real star when nuclear fusion starts. Nuclear fusion continues in the core for as long as there’s fuel. Then this newly formed star will start to affect the matter surrounding it because of instabilities in the nebula. This can cause smaller, more localized areas of increased gravity which in turn form proto-planets. Overtime these proto-planets start to collect and loose debris from orbital baths. Finally, as time goes on all the debris heat from the contractions around the gravitational center and eventually forms a molten planet, like Earth. Relationship to Big Bang Theory: The Nebular Hypothesis states how the solar system was formed and the Big Bang Theory states how our planet within the solar system was formed

4. Electromagnetic Spectrum
a. The Electromagnetic Spectrum is the distribution of electromagnetic radiation through wavelengths. It shows the different types of radiation (gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, microwaves, radio waves) and whether or not they are long or shortwave radiation.

b. Elemental signatures of stars – how do we view them: We cam view stars according to their brightness (apparent magnitude) and we can examine them through a telescope or satellite.

5. Doppler Effect
a. How Doppler Effect is used in the study of astronomy: Astronomers use the Doppler Effect to find out precisely how fast stars and other objects in space move toward or away from Earth. b. Red Shift vs. Blue Shift:

In Red shift the source of light is being stretched, or lengthened, indicating that Earth and the source are moving away from each other. In contrast objects approaching Earth are having their light waves being shifted closer to the blue, creating a shorter wavelength. The amount of shift an object has can help calculate the rate at which movement is occurring.

B. Seasons & Earths Motions
1. Three major Earth motions and their causes:
Earths three major motions are rotation, revolution, and precession. Precession causes the reversal of seasons every 13,000 years. Rotation causes day and night, gravitational pull and changes in the tides. Revolution causes a variation in the length of day and night around the world, and it also causes the earth to have different seasons over the course of a year. 2. Causes of the seasons: The seasons are caused by the earth’s axial tilt. 3. Seasons and their relative locations in space:

Earth in Space & Seasons

Polaris

Perihelion
Aphelion

4. Angle of isolation:...
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