Definition of Disaster:
Disaster means a serious disruption to a community caused by the impact of an event that requires a significant coordinated response by the Government and other entities to help the community to recover from the disruption. Disasters are usually associated with severe damage to infrastructure and utilities, death, injuries and homelessness, and can be widespread or contained within a particular sector or sub sector.
Definition of Disaster Area:
Disaster Area means a District, City Corporation, Upazila, and Municipality, Union or any part of Bangladesh declared to be a Disaster Area under this Act. Major Disasters in Bangladesh
Major disasters that occur in Bangladesh are: Tropical cyclone, Tidal bore, Flood, Tornado, River bank erosion, Earthquake etc. Outline of Most Severe Disasters
* Cyclones are the worst killer;
* The severe cyclone of 12 November 1970 took a tool of 0.3 million human lives in Bangladesh and put property damages to more than one billion US dollars; * Yet another worst cyclone which hit Bangladesh coast on April 1991 killed 0.14 million people and property damages were more than two billion US dollars; * The cyclone of 1876, 1919, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1985 and 1988 were also of severe nature. II. Floods:
* Floods are another devastating recurring phenomena in Bangladesh; * The flood of 1988 during August-September inundated 89,000 sq. Km. Areas of 52 districts of the country and caused loss of 1517 human lives; * The 1998 flood in Bangladesh with unprecedented duration of 65 days inundated 53 districts covering about 100,000 sp. Km. Areas and it took lives of 918 people; * The severe floods of 1922, 1954, 1955, 1974, 1984 and 1987 are worth mentioning. III. Droughts:
* Drought is another severe natural phenomenon which at some intervals visits Bangladesh and causes disastrous crop failures. * In 1979 the country was hit by a severe drought, which was termed by many as the worst in the recent past. * Droughts of 1957 and 1972 were of severe nature.
* Tornadoes during pre-monsoon period hit Bangladesh and cause localized devastation, both in terms of lives and properties. * Tornadoes of 14 April, 1969; 11 April, 1974; 01 April, 1977 and 26 April, 1989 are noteworthy.
Definition of Disaster Management: means arrangements for managing the potential adverse risks and includes defining the risk environment, managing the risk environment and responding to the threat environment.
Bangladesh Disaster Management Model
Fig: Model of Bangladesh Disaster Management
Disaster Management has emphasized a group of broad-based strategies:
1. Disaster management would involve the management of both risks and consequences of disasters that would include prevention emergency response and post-disaster recovery. 2. Community involvement for preparedness programmes for protecting lives and properties would be a major focus. Involvement of local government bodies would be an essential part of the strategy. Self-reliance should be the key for preparedness, response and recovery. 3. Non-structural mitigation measures such as community disaster preparedness training advocacy and public awareness must be given a high priority; this would require an integration of structural mitigation with non-structural measures.
Disaster management system in Bangladesh
The disaster management and relief division (DM&RD), MoFDM of the government of Bangladesh has the responsibility for coordinating national disaster management efforts across all agencies. In January 1997 the ministry issued the standing orders on disaster (SOD) to guide and monitor disaster management activities in Bangladesh. The SOD has been prepared with the avowed objective of making the concerned persons understand their duties and responsibilities regarding disaster management at all levels,...
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