Development of Philippine Literature

Topics: Literature, Filipino women writers, Philippines Pages: 7 (1148 words) Published: September 7, 2013
Pre-Spanish Period

*with existence of schools called BOTHOAN (in Panay); teachers were priests, priestesses, judges; materials – documents, manuscripts, book of ritual and magic, genealogies, calendars, impt. Laws and records of notable events *Literary forms: sayings, lyrics, legends, epics, proverbs, riddles, ritualistic utterances (on simple life experiences)

*Sample epics: Hinilawod (Panay)
Hudhud and Alim (Ifugao)
Darangen (Maranaw)
*Characteristics of literary works: immaturity, lack of sophistication and modes of expression, lacked naturalness, and simplicity

Spanish Period

*Characteristics: shift from nature and natural phenomena to preoccupation with the lives of saints, miracles, hymns, and invocations founded on Christian doctrine

* Reading fare came from pamphlets, novenas, and prayer books that are religious in nature

* Marked by literary imitation
* Fanciful but lacked imagination
*Plots were repetitious
*Themes are trite
*Characters were mere clichés

*Forms: continuation of duplo and karagatan
* Metrical romance (awit and corrido)
* Pasion
* Cenaculo
* Moro-moro
* Carillo (shadow play)
* Tibag
* Zarzuela
* Florante at Laura by Francisco Baltazar
*occurrence of nationalist literature
*works were satirical and critical in nature
Diariong Tagalog (1882), Spanish-Tagalog newspaper signaled the open campaign for reforms
La Solidaridad (mouthpiece of reform movement)
Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo
Propaganda writings turned to revolutionary writings of the “rebel patriots”
Kalayaan(Liberty), newspaper of the society
Apolinario Mabini’s “True Decalogue”
Jose Palma’s “Filipinas

THE EARLY PERIOD (1900-1930)

August 13, 1898 – American forces occupied Manila
April 1900 – Pres. William McKinley directed the Phil Commission to make English the medium of instruction in all public schools US Army – first teachers
1901 – 600 Thomasites replaced the first teachers
- Phil. Normal School was founded
Aim: To train the Filipinos in the art of teaching so that they could eventually take charge of elementary education 1899 – English newspapers published (The Courier, The Insular Press, The Manila Freedom) 1900 – The Daily Bulletin was founded

1902 – Cablenews started
1905 – The Phil Free Press was founded; edited by F. Theodore Rogers; started as a bilingual in English and Spanish; published the first Filipino short stories in English in 1908 1908 – UP was founded (became the forerunner in the use of English for higher education) Oct 1910 – College Folio was founded ( printed works of promising writers; early selections on ghost stories and folk tales; taught a moral message) Topics for compositions: folk tales and experiences

Style of writing: formal and imitative; use of Spanish expressions; awkward grammar; difficulty in the use of pronouns and prepositions

1913 – The Torch of PNS was published
1920 – Phils Herald began its publication (founded by Manuel L. Quezon and the magazine section edited by Paz Marquez Benitez)

**PMB makes familiar names such as Paz Latorena, Loreta Paras, Jose Garcia Villa, Casiano T. Calalang 1924 – AVH Hartendorp became the editor of Phil Education Magazine; renamed to Phil Magazine four years after; became the most influential literary magazine in the country; published some of the best Filipino writing in English) 1925 – FreePress began paying for theoriginal manuscripts and offered P1,000 for the best short stories Other Publications: Manila Tribune, Graphic, Woman’s Outlook, Woman’s Home Journal, Philippine Collegian

DRAMA and NOVEL – hardly written because the vernacular plays and zarzuela still dominated the stage A Child of Sorrow by Zoilo M. Galang – first Filipino novel in English published in 1921 (Other works include Visions of Sower, 1924 and Nadia,1929.) Ernest Lopez, another...
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