CRM 1301 Midterm uOttawa Carolyn Gordon

Topics: Crime, Death Penalty, Criminal justice Pages: 41 (10202 words) Published: February 26, 2014
The Demonic Perspective
Trephining
Individual who were having illusions or were delusional had a hole drilled in their skull in order to get rid of the spirits. If that person was still alive, the procedure was successful Witchcraft

Correlated with ‘The Crucible’ where Tituba, Sarah Good & Sarah Osborne are accused of witchcraft in Salem, 1692 What to do with the witches?!
Exodus 22:18- Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live
Leviticus  20:27- A man also or woman that hath a familiar spirit, or that is a wizard, shall surely be put to death: they shall stone them with stones: their blood shall be upon them. Assumptions of Demonology

Secularization: a systematic and general attempt to explain something The world is a battlefield between supernatural forces of good and bad Deviance = sin
Cause and cure of deviant behaviour in the realm of the supernatural Deviance has cosmic consequences
1. Harmful to victims
2. God
3. The entire cosmos
Two paths to Demonic Deviance
Temptation Model: Individuals are tempted and persuaded by the devil Path of position (possession): Individuals lacks choice, not responsible for actions. The solution to this possession is exorcism How to diagnose the Handiwork of the Devil

Trial by ordeal: accused would carry hot iron or walk on hot coals then they would wrap their wound, if the wounds weren't infected, God had intervened and if they were infected he hadn't Trial by cold water: accused would have their hands and feet tied. if they sank, they were innocent; if they floated they were not 5 types of evidence to convict

Trial by clever test: individual would have to say the Lord’s Prayer. Those that were guilty would say it backwards or make a mistake Individual testimony: one person's word against another
Physical marks of the devil: based on physical appearance and if there’s an abnormality, they’re working with the devil (wart, mole, skin tag, birthmark…) Spectral evidence: someone would claim to see a ghost of you and the only way it could be produced was if you made a pack with the devil Confession of guilt: trying to prove either the actus reus or the mens rea. Torture people to get them to confess and name accomplices Confessional devices/Torture devices

Inquisitional Chair: Made of iron, spikes to pierce the skin and would heat as well Iron Spider: Hung from ceiling
Cat’s Paw: Scratch individual
Judas’ Cradle: Hoisted above stool and released on it
Strappado: Individual left to hand, dropped just of ground
Heretic’s Fork: Sharp device around neck, pierce neck and chin The Rack: Body elongate
The Headcrusher; Tighten head
Witchcraft in context
Provide explanation
Changes and turmoil in society
Maintain status quo
Protect position and privileges
Challenge authorities = charged with heresy
Divert attention
Blames witches and the Church becomes indispensible
Scapegoat
Target powerless or threatening groups
Rationale for Punishment
Rooted in Christianity
Biblical law – lex tallonis (eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth) Penance through physical pain
Nothing scared about the body
Restore order of the world
Maintain balance
Eliminate evil spirits through death
Symbolism of fire
Deterrence
General (a sentence, that is severe enough to stop people from committing crimes) and specific (discourage, though punishment, an individual offender from committing another crime in the future) Affirm authority of the Church

Social control
Rid society of undesirables/deviants
Religious Control – More shame than pain
The Ducking Stool, Brank, Branding
Socially Constructed Problem: The Moral Panic
Moral panic: Occurs when a condition, episode, person or group of persons is defined as a threat to societal values and interests Moral entrepreneurs: can be an individual, group, or a formal organization who takes the responsibility to persuade the society at what is more important in terms of laws. Folk devils: groups that vise to be a threat to society.

Modern...
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