critical thinking study guide

Topics: Logic, Modus ponens, Fallacy Pages: 6 (1560 words) Published: October 26, 2014
Logical implication

Background belief
-hidden aspect(s) of our knowledge

Know the difference between sufficient and necessary conditions -necessary conditions are a set of conditions or requirements that must be met in order for something to belong to a particular kind -sufficient conditions guarantees all necessary conditions have been met

law of non-contradiction
-Fundamental law of logic
-Declares contradictory statements are necessarily false, literally irrational or illogical -Nothing can be and not be at the same time.
-A statement cannot be both true and false at the same time and cannot both have and lack a property at the same time and in the same respect -Such contradictions are logically impossible
logically compatible
-means that the conclusion follows the previously made premises and using the logic of the premises, therefore is true (does not contradict)

social hegemony
-Ideological leadership/ manipulation throughout culture; demarcating range and scope of socially acceptable ideas -produces commonsense

Gramsci on “commonsense”; Dr. Nall on pillars of common sense -“Everyone, for Gramsci, has a number of ‘conceptions of the world,’ which often tend to be in contradiction with one another and therefore form an incoherent whole. Many of these conceptions are imposed and absorbed passively from outside, or from the past, and are accepted and lived uncritically. In this case they constitute what Gramsci calls ‘common sense….Many elements in popular common sense contribute to people’s subordination by making situations of inequality and oppression appear to them as natural and unchangeable” -Pillars of common sense:

Orwell’s concepts: “doublethink” and “crimestop”
-“Crimestop means the faculty of stopping short , as though by instinct, at the threshold of any dangerous thought. It includes the power of not grasping analogies, of failing to perceive logical errors, of misunderstanding the simplest arguments if they are inimical to Ingsoc, and of getting bored or repelled by any train of thought which is capable of leading in a heretical direction. Crimestop, in short, means protective stupidity.”

-“Doublethink means the power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one’s mind simultaneously, and accepting both of them…. Doublethink lies at the very heart of Ingsoc, since the essential act of the Party is to use conscious deception while retaining the firmness of purpose that goes with complete honesty. To tell deliberate lies while genuinely believing in them, to forget any fact that has become inconvenient, and then, when it becomes necessary again, to draw it back from oblivion for just so long as it is needed, to deny

bell hooks ideas about children and critical thinking, conversation, imagination Conversation: As we engage in democratic discourse such as conversation, hooks for “radical openness” to the full and complete spectrum of ideas This requires us to renounce our demand for the so-called “safety” of uniform, conformist conversation Socrates’ ideas about the purpose of philosophy and the “wisdom” of those with the highest reputations of his time Since our lives are guided by our beliefs, only those engaged in contemplating and evaluating such beliefs could lead a good life Socrates argues that the real reason he is on trial is because he has succeeded in exposing the arrogance and the ignorance of those said to be the wisest.

Hannah Arendt’s perspective on evil
-The trouble with Eichmann was precisely that so many were like him, and that the many were neither perverted nor sadistic, that they were, and still are, terribly and terrifyingly normal. The longer one listened to him, the more obvious it became that his inability to speak was closely connected with an inability to think, namely, to think from the standpoint of somebody else. No communication was possible with him, not because he lied but because he was surrounded by the most reliable of all safeguards...
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