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Computer Ethics Study Guide

By jvizzle May 06, 2013 2114 Words
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C:\8
th Grade Computers/Computer Ethics/Computer Ethics Study Guide.doc 08/20/09 Copyright © 2005, Laura Parcell
Computer Ethics, Security, Privacy & You Study Guide
ETHICS
 Ethics refers to an individual’s standards of moral (good/proper) conduct.  Telling the truth is a matter of ethics.
 An unethical act isn’t always illegal, but sometimes it is.  Computer Ethics refers to the standards of conduct (such as copyright and privacy) as they pertain to computers.
 Computer organizations and United States corporations have established Codes of Conduct.
 Codes of Conduct covers the following: unauthorized uses of software, hardware, and communication networks to educate their employees; warn their employees of the consequences of performing acts the company has deemed unacceptable. WHAT YOU DO REFLECTS ON YOU

 When you use the Internet, it can feel like you are invisible.  You might think that you could do whatever you want.
 You may not worry about getting caught.
 You may not think about whether your actions might hurt someone else.  Most of the time you are not invisible on the Internet.
 Computer systems do a good job of tracking computer use.  You actually leave little cyberfootprints wherever you go.  You might forget that your actions can be traced.
ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING STRATEGIES
 Golden Rule Test: How would you feel if others did the same thing to you that you have done to them?
 Trusted Adult Test: What would your mom or dad, guardian, or other adult who is important in your life think?
 Is There a Rule Test: Rules or laws have been created to protect the rights of people and serve the common good.
 Front Page Test: If your action were reported on the front page of the newspaper, what would other people think?
 If Everybody Did It Test: What would happen if everybody made a decision to do the same thing you do?
 Real World Test: Would it be okay if you did this action or similar action in the real world?
 Gandhi Test: Sometimes when people behave inappropriately on the Internet, they claim that they are actually trying to make the Internet a better place.  Check Inside Test: We all have a “voice of conscience” inside of us that helps us figure out whether an action is right or wrong.

KEEPING IT PRIVATE (PRIVACY)
 It is important to learn to protect your own privacy and respect the privacy of others when you use the Internet.
 The Internet is never private.2
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th Grade Computers/Computer Ethics/Computer Ethics Study Guide.doc 08/20/09 Copyright © 2005, Laura Parcell
KEEPING IT PRIVATE (PRIVACY) (CONT’D.)
 It’s important to remember that everything you do or write when using the Internet is stored in electronic form someplace.
 Others may be able to track or access what you have done or what you have said.  People can find out things about you that you did not want them to know.  It is important to think about what information you want to keep private.  You should talk to your parents about the types of information about your family that should be kept private.

 You cannot share private information about other people in public or private electronic messages or anyplace else on the Internet.
 What people write in private messages to you should be treated with respect.  You should not expect to have privacy when you use the Internet at school.  Schools monitor all Web activity.
 Chat messages are archived (stored) on a computer system somewhere.  They are easily accessible by anyone who knows how to search for them.  Commercial Web sites are interested in obtaining as much personal information from you as they can.

 When you visit a new Web site, read its privacy policy.
 When you are on a commercial Web site, be careful about responding to any questionnaires, surveys/polls, or entering any contests.
INFORMATION PRIVACY
 Refers to the right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict the collection and use of information about them.
 Some companies and individuals collect and use this information without your authorization.
 Electronic Profiles
- When you fill out a form such as a magazine as well as click on an advertisement on the Web, the merchant that received your information usually enters it into a database.
- Merchants sell the contents of their databases to national marketing firms and Internet advertising firms.
- By combining this data with information from public sources such as driver’s licenses, these firms create an electronic profile of individuals. - The information in these electronic profiles includes personal details such as your age, address, telephone number, spending habits, marital status, number of dependents and so on.

 Cookies
- It is a small text file that a Web server stored on your computer. - E-commerce and other Web applications often rely on cookies to identify users and customize Web pages.
- Cookie files contain data about you, such as your user name or viewing preferences. - Cookies allow for personalization to track user preferences. - Many commercial Web sites send a cookie to your browser and then, your hard drive stores the cookie.3

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th Grade Computers/Computer Ethics/Computer Ethics Study Guide.doc 08/20/09 Copyright © 2005, Laura Parcell
INFORMATION PRIVACY (CONT’D.)
- The next time you visit the Web site, your browser retrieves the cookie from your hard drive and sends the data in the cookie to the Web site. - You can set your browser to accept cookies automatically, prompt you if you want to accept a cookie, or disable cookie use altogether.

 Spyware
- Is a program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information about the user.
- It can enter a computer as a virus or as a result of a user installing a new program. - The spyware program communicates information it collects to some outside source while you are online.
- Some vendors or employers use spyware to collect information about program usage or employees.
- Internet advertising firms often collect information about users’ Web browsing habits by hiding spyware in adware.
 Adware
- Is a program that displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window on Web pages, email, or other Internet services.
 Web Bug
- Is hidden on Web pages or in email messages in the form of pictures. - Web businesses use Web bugs to monitor online habits of Web site visitors. - Web bugs link to a cookie stored on your hard drive.

- To remove any spyware or adware, you can purchase a special program that can detect and delete it.
 Spam
- Is an unsolicited email message or newsgroup posting sent to many recipients or newsgroups at once.
- The content ranges from selling a product or service, to promoting a business opportunity, to advertising offensive material.
- Spam sent through instant messaging is called spim.
- Another spam, Spit, is sent through Internet telephony.
- You can delete spam automatically in the settings of your email program. - You can also sign up for email filtering through your ISP as well as purchase antispam software.  Phishing
- Is a scam in which a perpetrator sends an official-looking email that attempts to obtain your personal and financial information.
RESPECTING THE CREATOR (COPYRIGHT)
 Copyright laws balance two important values.
 First value is that it protects the rights of the creator and the second value is making sure the creator receives an income from their creative efforts.
 Copyright law gives you the right to protect any work you create, whether in school or at home.
 It is not ok for other people to use your creative works in a way that is unfair to you.4 C:\8
th Grade Computers/Computer Ethics/Computer Ethics Study Guide.doc 08/20/09 Copyright © 2005, Laura Parcell
RESPECTING THE CREATOR (COPYRIGHT) (CONT’D.)
 It is not ok for you to use other people’s creative works in a way that is not fair to them.  Copyright law protects creative works.
 A creative work could be writing, music, a picture, musical performance, or software.  When you create a work, you become the owner of the copyright in that work.  Once you have completed a creative work, it automatically becomes protected under copyright.

 A copyright notice looks like this: © year of creation, creator’s name.  When you are the owner of a copyright work, you have a variety of exclusive rights.  The rights are called “exclusive” because you are the only one who can do these things with the work.

 The five exclusive rights are: the right to copy the work; the right to distribute the work; the right to modify the work; the right to display the work; and the right to perform the work.
 The copyright owner is the one who gets to decide whether to give permission for anyone else to do these five rights with the work.
 This permission is called a license.
 If you wrote a story and your teacher wants to post it on the Web site, the teacher needs to ask you and your parents’ permission to post your story.  If someone else created a work, he/she owns the copyright to that work.  The income provides the ability for the creator to support him/herself so that he/she can create more works.

 Anytime you take a created work without asking permission for it, you are taking the income that is expected away from the creator for the distribution of the work.  The fair use exemption, which is a part of the copyright law, was created to ensure that the copyright laws balanced the benefits to the creators and the benefits to society.  Several questions must be considered to determine whether the use of a copyrighted work would be considered fair. They are: How is the copyrighted work being used? What kind of work is being used? How much of the work is being used? CYBER CRIME

 The Department of Justice categorizes computer crime in three ways: The computer as a target; The computer as a weapon; and the computer as an accessory. COMPUTER SECURITY
 Is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware, software, data, information, or processing capability.
 Any illegal act involving a computer generally is referred to as a computer crime.  Cybercrime refers to online or Internet-based illegal acts.  Hacker is someone who accesses a computer or network illegally. - They often claim the intent of their security breaches is to improve security.  Cracker is someone who accesses a computer or network illegally but has the intention of destroying data, stealing information, or other malicious action.  Both hackers and crackers have advanced computer and network skills.  Script Kiddie have the same intent as a cracker but does not have the technical skills and knowledge.5

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th Grade Computers/Computer Ethics/Computer Ethics Study Guide.doc 08/20/09 Copyright © 2005, Laura Parcell
COMPUTER SECURITY (CONT’D.)
- They are often teenagers that use prewritten hacking and cracking programs to break into computers.
 Corporate Spies have excellent computer and network skills and are hired to break into a specific computer and steal its proprietary data and information. - Unscrupulous companies hire corporate spies (a practice known as corporate espionage) to gain a competitive advantage.

 Unethical Employees break into their employers computers for a variety of reasons. - Some simply want to exploit a security weakness.
- Others seek financial gains from selling confidential information. - Disgruntled employees may want revenge.
 Cyberextortionist is someone who uses email as a vehicle as extortion. - They send a company a threatening email indicating they will expose confidential information, exploit a security flaw, or launch an attack that will compromise the company’s network—if they are not paid a sum of money.

 Cyberterrorist is someone who uses the Internet or network to destroy or damage computers for political reasons.
- Some examples are: destroying the nation’s air traffic control system; destroying the electricity-generating companies; destroying a telecommunications infrastructure. - It usually requires a team of highly-skilled individuals, millions of dollars, and several years of planning.

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS OF COMPUTER ETHICS
 Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people.
 Thou shalt not interfere with other people’s computer work.  Thou shalt not snoop around in other people’s computer files.  Thou shalt not use a computer to steal.
 Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness.
 Thou shalt not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid.  Thou shalt not use other people’s computer resources without authorization or proper compensation.
 Thou shalt not appropriate other people’s intellectual output.  Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing.
 Thou shalt always use a computer in ways that insure consideration and respect for your fellow humans.

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