Lesson 35, 莊子秋水 (3)
河伯曰：「若物之外，若物之內，惡至而倪貴賤？惡至而倪小大？」北海若曰：「以道觀之，物無貴賤； The earl of the He said, 'Whether the subject be what is external in things, or what is internal, how do we come to make a distinction between them as noble and mean, and as great or small?' Ruo of the Northern Sea replied, 'When we look at them in the light of the Dao, they are neither noble nor mean. 以物觀之，自貴而相賤：以俗觀之，貴賤不在己。以差觀之，因其所大而大之，則萬物莫不大；因其所小而小之，則萬物莫不小。 Looking at them in themselves, each thinks itself noble, and despises others. Looking at them in the light of common opinion, their being noble or mean does not depend on themselves. Looking at them in their differences from one another, if we call those great which are greater than others, there is nothing that is not great, and in the same way there is nothing that is not small. 知天地之為稊米也，知豪末之為丘山也，則差數等矣。以功觀之，因其所有而有之，則萬物莫不有；因其所無而無之，則萬物莫不無。知東西之相反，而不可以相無，則功分定矣。 We shall (thus) know that heaven and earth is but (as) a grain of the smallest rice, and that the point of a hair is (as) a mound or a mountain - such is the view given of them by their relative size. Looking at them from the services they render, allowing to everything the service which it does, there is not one which is not serviceable; and, extending the consideration to what it does not do, there is not one which is not unserviceable. We know (for instance) that East and West are opposed to each other, and yet that the one cannot be without (suggesting the idea of) the other - (thus) their share of mutual service is determined. 以趣觀之，因其所然而然之，則萬物莫不然；因其所非而非之，則萬物莫不非。知堯、桀之自然而相非，則趣操睹矣。 Looking at them with respect to their tendencies, if we approve of what they approve, then there is no one who may not be approved of; and, if we condemn what they condemn, there is no one who may not be condemned. There are the cases of Yao and Jie, each of whom approved of his own course, and condemned the other - such is the view arising from the consideration of tendency and aim....
Please join StudyMode to read the full document