Deontological ethics (Kant) key concept Categorical imperative- Act only on that maxim whereby thou canst at the same time will that is should become a universal law. What is the maxim that I am acting and should it be universal. (Apply it rationally) Ex. Person wants to cheat on the test based on the reason to pass and tries to make it a universal law, everyone cheats on the test. Borrowing- the maxim I will act on is lying saying that I can pay it back and then I would see if it could be universal law. Deontological (duty)
Perfect- the rule ends up contradicting itself
Imperfect- the rule doesn’t contradict itself but I am unable to will it.
Consequentialism-(Broader term) Deals with the results
Utilitarianism-(form of consequentialism) (which action is the greatest good for the greatest number.) Requires a lot of information Jeremy Bentham and John Stewart Mill (utilitarianism)
Virtue Ethics- (Aristotle) based on creating good habits and good character I lie in that situation, maybe not a big deal, but the problem is I could gradually be becoming a liar. Base your actions on the type of person you want to become. Natural Law- (Aquinas) Even people who have not been given the ten commandment, people still know that murder is wrong. General/special revelation- knowing in your heart is general because all people have it. Special is like the ten commandment, some people are given special revelation such as a bible or church in order to tell you Jesus Christ is lord and savior. Divine command- God gives certain commandments and that’s it. Euthyphro dilemma. * Makes ethics arbitrary. If god said we all should murder then everybody would be bad. * Knowledge- unless God speaks to me constantly, I don’t know what God wants. Doesn’t give you rules to apply in every situation. * Naturalistic fallacy- you are trying to answer a ethical question by appealing to something that is outside of ethics.
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