Brown and Brownell (1990) found that toddlers who frequently initiated conflicts with peers:
A. a. were the most sociable and initiated the most interactions.
B. b. were unpopular with peers
C. c. were insecurely attached to their parents.
D. d. were socially immature.
Question 2 of 36
What kinds of attributions are socially incompetent children likely to make in ambiguous situations?
A. a. nonthreatening.
B. b. external.
C. c. hostile.
D. d. friendly.
Question 3 of 36
Which peer status is the most stable over time?
A. a. popular.
B. b. neglected.
C. c. controversial.
D. d. rejected.
Question 4 of 36
A. a. are more prominent in the United States than in any other culture around the world.
B. b. are less prominent in the United States than in other cultures around the world.
C. c. are not emphasized in most cultures around the world.
D. d. vary in prominence among ethnic groups within the United States.
Question 5 of 36
Studies (in the early 1990's) of cross-cultural differences in peer relationships in middle childhood found that __________ was related to peer acceptance in China and peer rejection in Canada.
A. a. cooperation.
B. b. height.
C. c. shyness.
D. d. socio-economic status.
Question 6 of 36
During adolescence, friendship processes begin to emphasize:
A. a. fitting in with the norms of the group.
B. b. exploring the self and disclosure.
C. c. learning to resolve conflict.
D. d. maximizing entertainment.
Question 7 of 36
Girls with numerous mixed-sex antipathies are likely to be ______ while boys with numerous mixed-sex antipathies are likely to be ________.
A. a. antisocial; popular.
B. b. popular; rejected.
C. c. aggressive; victimized.
D. d. depressed; antisocial.
Question 8 of 36
Which is considered the most significant factor that influences a child's peer acceptance?
A. a. attractiveness.
B. b. social and cognitive skills.
C. c. verbal ability.
D. d. athletic ability.
Question 9 of 36
In low-income neighborhoods,
A. a. friendships are less abundant than in high-income neighborhoods.
B. b. children have less access to large peer groups than children in high-income neighborhoods.
C. c. parents can protect their children by monitoring their activities.
D. d. parents usually have to plan their children's social interactions for them.
Question 10 of 36
Williams and Best (1990) studied gender stereotypes in 25 countries from around the world and found:
A. a. that Western cultures have more gender stereotypes than Eastern cultures.
B. b. that more industrialized cultures have fewer gender stereotypes than developing countries.
C. c. the concept of gender stereotypes to be mainly an Anglo-Saxon phenomenon.
D. d. similar patterns of gender stereotypes across most cultures.
Question 11 of 36
As men age, they tend to:
A. a. become more stereotypically masculine.
B. b. become more emotionally and behaviorally expressive.
C. c. become more socially conscious.
D. d. become more psychologically mature.
Question 12 of 36
According to Kohlberg, children recognize that they are either boys or girls during the stage of:
A. a. gender-schemas.
B. b. basic gender identity.
C. c. gender constancy.
D. d. gender stability.
Question 13 of 36
Recent research on children of gay and lesbian parents suggests that:
A. a. boys reared in lesbian families are more likely to play with toys traditionally associated with girls.
B. b. children raised in homosexual...
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