Chem 11 Study Guide SCH3U
* SATP: Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure ( 100kpa and 25 degrees C) * STP: Standard Temperature and Pressure (101.325kp and 0 deg C) * IUPAC: Intn’l Union of Pure and Applied Chem (approves, makes chem names symbols, etc. * Representative Elements: an element in any of groups 1,2,13-18 * Transition Metal: element of groups 3-12
* Energy level: a space with definite and fixed energy in which an electron is allowed to move * Orbit: circular/spherical path in which the electron can move around the nucleus * Electron Cloud: the region of an atom in which there is a probability that an electron exists * Quantum Mechanics: theory of the atom in which electrons are described in terms of their energies/probability patterns (model looks like smoke around a circle) * Principal Quantum # (n from 2n^2 formula for max # e- per level): # specifying the theoretical energy lvl of an elctron in the atom * Avg Atomic Mass: weighted avg of masses of an atom’s isotopes * Isotope: atoms with same # of protons but diff # of neutrons * Isotopic Abundance: % of an isotope in a sample of an element * Nuclear Charge: positive charge on nucleus (# of protons/atomic number) * Position of Outermost Orbital: dist. Btwn nucleus and valence e- (increases down cuz more lvls outweigh nuc charge, decreases across cuz same # o lvls, more nuc charge pulls elecs in) * Shielding Effect: extent to which elecs in inner orbits affect bonding of valence elecs * Atomic radius: size o atom (picometrs) (increases down cuz more levels outweigh nuc charge, increases to the left cuz of less nuc charge for same number of lvls) * Ionic Radius: radius as an atom becomes an ion (decreases since an element has one fewer energy level as it becomes a positive ion loses electrons) *increases downwards cuz more energy lvls to begin with even after losing, *increases to theleft cuz of less nuclear charge yet...
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