Chapter 1: Classification and Characteristics of Living Organisms Organisms - An individual living thing, such as an animal or a plant, is called an organism. There are seven characteristics of living organisms –
Nutrition is the process by which organisms obtain energy and raw materials from nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates and fats for growth and repair. Photosynthesis is the process of nourishment of green plants. Digestion is the process of nourishment of green plants.
Respiration is the process of the breakdown of nutrients (glucose) to release energy. It occurs in cells of the organism
It is of 2 types- Anaerobic (No Oxygen) and Aerobic (Oxygen) Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy (34-36 ATP + heat)
Movement is the change of position of an organism to change positions or move pats of them. Plants too move in various different ways.
The movement may be so slow that it is very difficult to see.
Growth is the permanent increase in size and the dry mass of the organism. Plants keep on growing for their whole lives.
Animals stop growing at a certain age.
Excretion is the process of the removal of the metabolic waste from the body. Metabolism is the term given to the entire chemical reactions taking place in the body. Plants store this waste in their leaves so that it is removed when they fall off.
Sensitivity is the response of a change in the environment of the organism. Such a change is called a Stimulus.
It is the process by which an organism produces new individuals. Asexual reproduction is when only one parent is involved.
Sexual reproduction is where two parents are involved.
The classification of organisms is called Taxonomy
Live in Soil and water
Some are parasitical
They are bilaterally symmetrical
Chaetae or bristles
Cephalothorax and abdomen
Two pairs of Antennae
Live in Water
5-20 pairs of legs
Centipedes are Carnivores, fast and have one pair of legs on each segment. Millipedes are Herbivores, slow and have two pairs of legs on each segment.
Head, Thorax and Abdomen
Three pairs of legs
Two pairs of wings.
One pair of Antennae
Cephalothorax and Abdomen
Four pairs of legs
2 Chambered Heart
Smooth and Moist Skin
Adults use lungs
Can also breathe through skin
Three Chambered Heart
Dry and Scaly Skin
Three except for croc which has 4
Four Chambered Heart
Hair or Fur
Internal development and fertilisation
Four Chambered Heart
Simple Cell Structure
Spherical or Rod Shaped
Surrounded by Cell Walls
Contain additional DNA loops called Plasmids
No chloroplasts or mitochondria
Create Endospores to survive in Harsh Conditions.
Most are Multicellular
Cell wall made of Chitin
Main body is MYCELIUM
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