Chapter 9 and 10 Review Questions
1. Binary fission is the subdivision of a cell. The relative speed is faster. Chromatin is spaghetti like before mitosis
Chromatid (each individual part of the chromosome)
Centromere (middle part of the chromosome)
Centriole (involved in cellular division, the poles that pull the chromatids) Centrosome (microtubule organization center)
4. Diploid (2n) number
Half the diploid is haploid (n) number
Humans have 46 chromosomes (diploid)
5. G1, S, G2, I, P, P, M, A, T, Cytokinesis
Prophase - Duplicated chromosomes are visible
Prometaphase - the kinetochore spindle fiber attaches to chromosome Metaphase - Chromosomes line up
Anaphase - Centrioles pull the chromosome away
Telophase - Daughter cells are forming
6. Critical checkpoints
M to G1 and G2
7. Mitosis in plant cells need a cell plate.
9. Apoptosis commits suicide on a cell.
10. Cyclins - Any proteins that are associated with the cycle of cell division with mitosis Oncogenes - Cancer-causing genes
Tumor Suppressor genes - They specify proteins that directly and indirectly inhibit the cell cycle Telomeres - Protect cells from damage
1. Prophase I - Chromosomes are duplicated
Metaphase I - Homologous pairs align independently
Anaphase I - Homologous chromosomes separate and move toward the poles Telophase I - Daughter cells have one chromosome from each homologous pair Interkinesis - Chromosome still consist of two chromatids
2. Mitosis is simple cell division, two identical cells.
Meiosis is cell division for gametes (sex cells). from parents. 3. Gametes are haploid.
4. Fertilized egg is called a zygote.
5. Another name for a tetrad was a bivalent. Synaptonemal complex is a protein structure that forms between two homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Chiasma is the point where two homologous non-sister chromatids exchange genetic material. Crossing over occurs in prophase I. 6. Polar body is...
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