chapter 18 study guide,

Topics: Metabolism, Nutrition, Vitamin Pages: 8 (2062 words) Published: February 16, 2014
 Name____Shelby Bill__________________ BIO 236 Nutrition Ch. 18

1. Define…
Nutrition- Study of the sources, actions, and interactions of nutrients. macronutrients- A nutrient (carbohydrate, lipid, and protein) required in a large amount. micronutrients- Nutrient (vitamin or mineral) required in small amount.

2. Nutrients that cannot be synthesized by humans, like some amino acids, are called ______essential___ nutrients.

3. List the 6 types of Vegetarian diets, including food restrictions. Vegan- No animal foods
Ovo-vegetarian- Eggs allowed; no dairy or meat
Lacto-vegetarian- Dairy allowed; no meat
Lacto-ovo-vegetarian- Dairy and eggs allowed; no meat
Pesco-vegetarian- Dairy, Eggs, and fish allowed; no other meat Semivegetarian- Dairy, eggs, chicken and fish allowed; no other meat

4. List the three types of monosaccharides:

5. How does cellulose facilitate intestinal function?
Cellulose is abundant in our food, it is almost unchanged during digestion, which provides the muscular wall of the intestinal system something to push.

6. Name two uses of carbohydrates other than supplying energy. Used in breast tissue for the secretion of milk
Used in the making of ribose and deoxyribose

7. According to your text book, what is the estimated daily requirement for carbohydrates?
It is estimated that you get at least 125 to 175 grams to avoid metabolic disorders, althought the minimal requirements are unknown. An average diet has 200-300 grams daily.

8. Which fatty acids are essential nutrients?
Linoleic acid & Linolenic acid

9. Describe the role of the liver in the utilization of fats.
The liver regulates circuiting lipids and it controls the total amount of cholesterol in the body, by synthesizing and releasing it into the blood or bile. The liver uses cholesterol to produce bile salts. 10. What is the estimated daily requirement for lipids?

It is estimated that the daily requirement for lipids is to not exceed 30% of total daily calories. (Estimated by the USDA)

11. What are the functions of proteins?
They have a wider variety of functions, when dietary proteins are digested the resulting amino acids are absorbed and transported by the blood, which many are used to form specified DNA base sequences. Then the new proteins include enzymes that control the rates of metabolic reactions; clotting factors; the keratins of skin and hair; elastin and collagen of connective tissue; plasma proteins that regulate water balance; the muscle components actin and myosin; certain hormones; and the antibodies that protect against infection.

12. How many amino acids are essential for children?__10__ For adults?__8_____

13. What is the difference between a complete protein and an incomplete protein (give an example of each). Based on the amino acid types that they provide, a complete protein has adequate amounts of the essential amino acids to maintain human body tissues and promote normal growth and development.

Incomplete proteins cannot by themselves maintain human body tissues or support normal growth and development.

14. Describe protein deamination.
A process in the liver that removes the nitrogen-containing groups, which then react to form a waste called Urea, which is then excreted in urine.

15. What is the estimated daily requirement for protein?
The amount of protein individuals require is based on body size, metabolic rate, and nitrogen balance condition. The estimated daily requirement for protein intake of an average adult is 0.8 gram per kilogram of body weight or 10% of a person’s diet.

16. Describe basal metabolic rate (BMR). What information would you need in order to figure out a person’s BMR?
A persons basal metabolic rate measures the rate at which the body expends energy under basal conditions (when a person is awake or at rest or an overnight fast. You would need to know the persons sex,...
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