Chapter 12 AP World Notes Outline

Topics: Song Dynasty, China, Tang Dynasty Pages: 6 (1644 words) Published: October 30, 2013

AP World: Chapter 12
I. Reunification and Renissance in Chinese Civilization: The Era of the Tang and Song Dynasties Though it was not the biggest city, Hangzhou, the capital of the song rulers, was renowned for its beauty and sophistication a) Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice in the Sui-Tang Era

The emergence of the Sui dynasty at the end of the 6th century C.E. signaled a return to strong dynastic control in China. In the Tang era that followed, a Confucian revival enhanced the position of the scholar-gentry administrators and provided the ideological basis for a return to highly centralized rule under an imperial dynasty Wendi, a member of a prominent north Chinese noble family that had long been active in these contest, struck a marriage alliance between his daughter and the ruler of the northern Zhou empire Wendi seized the throne of his son-in-law and proclaimed himself emperor Secured his power base by winning the support of neighboring nomadic military commanders Won widespread support by lowering taxes and establishing granaries throughout his kingdom i. Sui Excesses and Collapse

Foundation laid for political unification and economic prosperity were at first strengthened even further by his son Yangdi who murdered his father to reach the throne Extended conquest and drove back nomadic groups

Milder legal code and devoted resources to upgrading Confucian education Overly fond of luxury and extravagant construction projects
Set in motion wide spread revolts
Provincial governors declared themselves independent rulers, bandit gangs raided at will, nomadic attacks… ii. The Emergence of the Tang and Restoration of the Empire
The dissolution of the imperial order was averted by the military skills and political savvy of one of Yangdi’s official, Li Yuan, the Duke of Tang But as Yangdi grew more and more irrational and unrest spread from one end of the empire to the other, Li Yuan was convinced by his sons and allies that only rebellion would save the empire and his family Tang armies conquered deep into central Asia- victories mean that many of the nomadic peoples who had dominate China in the Six Dynasties era had to submit to Tang rule Tang had built an empire that was far larger than even that of the early Han empire iii. Rebuilding the Bureaucracy

A revived scholar-gentry elite and reworked Confucian ideology played central roles in the process Desperately needed loyal and well educated officials to govern the vast empire they had built Members of the hereditary aristocracy continued to occupy administrative positions but the scholar-gentry executive department oversaw a huge bureaucracy Reached from imperial palace down to subprefecture or district level Finally there was a very large staff to run the imperial household including the palaces in the new capital at changan and the residences of the princes of the imperial line iv. The Growing Importance of the Examination System

Patronized academies to trains state officials and educate the in the Confucian classics which were thought to teach moral and organizational principles essential to effective administrators Several different kinds of examinations were administered by the Ministry of Rites to students from government schools or to those recommended by distinguished scholars Highest offices could only be gained by those who were able to pass exams on the philosophical or legal classics Those who passed the even more difficult exam on Chinese literature earned the title of jinshi v. State and Religion in the Tang and Song Eras

Increasing state patronage for Confucian learning threatened not only the old aristocratic families but also the Buddhist monastic orders which had become a major force in Chinese life in the six dynasties era Amongthe masses, the Salvationist pure land strain of Mahayana Buddism won widespread conversions because it seemed to provide refuge from an age of war and turmoil Members of the elite classes on the other hand were more...
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