Chapter 1

Topics: Materials science, Electrical conductivity, Resistivity Pages: 13 (946 words) Published: February 27, 2014
MSE20-3: Introduction to
Materials Science & Engineering
Course Objective...
Introduce fundamental concepts in Materials
Science

You will learn about:
• material structure
• how structure dictates properties
• how processing can change structure

This course will help you to:
• use materials properly
• realize new design opportunities
with materials
Chapter 1 - 1

COURSE MATERIALS
(with WileyPLUS)
Required text:
• WileyPLUS for Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, W.D. Callister, Jr. and D.G. Rethwisch, 8th edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (2010).

Website: http://www.wileyplus.com/xxxxxxxxxxx
• Can be bought online at wileyplus.com for 40% of textbook price • Includes complete online version of textbook
• Or comes bundled with textbook at bookstore
• $5 more than textbook alone
• Homework assignments with instant feedback and hints
• Computer graded self-help problems
• Hotlinks in homework to supporting text section
• Quizzes
Chapter 1 - 2

READING SCHEDULE
Week
1
2
3
4
5
6

7
8
9
10

Topic
General Intro; Atomic Bonding
Crystalline Structures; Imperfections
Diffusion; Mechanical Properties
Strengthening Mechanisms; Failure
Phase Diagrams
Phase Transformations
Applications & Processing of Metal Alloys
Struc., Prop., Proc., Applic. of Ceramics
Struc., Prop. of Polymers; Composites
Corrosion; Elec. & Thermal Prop.
Magnetic & Optical Prop.
Econ. & Envir. Issues

Chapter
1,2
3,4
5,6
7,8
9
10
11
12,13
14,15,16
17,18,19
20,21
22

Lectures: will highlight important portions of each chapter. Chapter 1 - 3

Chapter 1 - Introduction
• What is materials science?
• Why should we know about it?
• Materials drive our society





Stone Age
Bronze Age
Iron Age
Now?
• Silicon Age?
• Polymer Age?

Chapter 1 - 4

Example – Hip Implant
• With age or certain illnesses joints deteriorate.
Particularly those with large loads (such as hip).

Adapted from Fig. 22.25, Callister 7e.

Chapter 1 - 5

Example – Hip Implant
• Requirements
– mechanical
strength (many
cycles)
– good lubricity
– biocompatibility

Adapted from Fig. 22.24, Callister 7e.
Chapter 1 - 6

Example – Hip Implant

Adapted from Fig. 22.26, Callister 7e.

Chapter 1 - 7

Hip Implant
• Key problems to overcome
– fixation agent to hold
acetabular cup
– cup lubrication material
– femoral stem – fixing agent
(“glue”)
– must avoid any debris in cup

Ball

Acetabular
Cup and Liner

Femoral
Stem
Adapted from chapter-opening photograph,
Chapter 22, Callister 7e.

Chapter 1 - 8

Example – Develop New Types of
Polymers
• Commodity plastics – large volume ca. $0.50 / lb
Ex.
Polyethylene
Polypropylene
Polystyrene
etc.



Engineering Resins – small volume > $1.00 / lb
Ex.
Polycarbonate
Nylon
Polysulfone
etc.
Can polypropylene be “upgraded” to properties (and price) near those of engineering resins?

Chapter 1 - 9

Structure, Processing, & Properties
• Properties depend on structure
ex: hardness vs structure of steel
(d)

Hardness (BHN)

6 00
5 00
4 00

(c)

(a)

(b)
4 mm

3 00

2 00

30 mm

30 mm

100
0.01 0.1

30 mm

Data obtained from Figs. 10.30(a)
and 10.32 with 4 wt% C composition,
and from Fig. 11.14 and associated
discussion, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
Micrographs adapted from (a) Fig.
10.19; (b) Fig. 9.30;(c) Fig. 10.33;
and (d) Fig. 10.21, Callister &
Rethwisch 8e.

1
10 100 1000
Cooling Rate (ºC/s)

• Processing can change structure
ex: structure vs cooling rate of steel
Chapter 1 - 10

Types of Materials
• Metals:
– Strong, ductile
– High thermal & electrical conductivity
– Opaque, reflective.

• Polymers/plastics: Covalent bonding  sharing of e’s – Soft, ductile, low strength, low density
– Thermal & electrical insulators
– Optically translucent or transparent.

• Ceramics: ionic bonding (refractory) – compounds of metallic &...
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