Changes on Western Frontier: Chapter 13

Topics: Native Americans in the United States, Great Plains, United States Pages: 3 (611 words) Published: September 28, 2012
Chapter 13 Notes: Changes on the Western Frontier

Native Americans
-Native Americans of the plains hunted, farmed, and traded in traditional ways.
-Plains people relied on the buffalo for a variety of survival needs
-The booming of the cattle industry in the late 1800s contributed to the decline of the Plains Indians’ culture.
-The Sioux (war-like plains tribe) resisted the efforts of the U.S. government, the army & the settlers to remove them from their sacred lands.
-Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse led the Sioux in their resistance against the government.
-Sitting Bull fought the army at the Battle of Little Big Horn; he felt the Native Americans should continue to live in their traditional ways; he surrendered to the government in 1881 to prevent his people from starving; he continued to dislike the whites & their government; reservation police killed him in 1890; he remains an iconic symbol of Native American resistance today

-Gold was discovered on Sioux land
-Battle of Little Big Horn: June 25, 1876; Sitting Bull & Sioux killed Custer & all his men; also known as “Custer’s Last Stand”
-Red Cloud, leader of Sioux, signed many treaties with U.S government in order to keep peace and keep the army from killing his people; he petitioned the government to end white settlement of the Bozeman Trail and keep the traditional hunting grounds intact

-Many attempts were made to assimilate or “Americanize” the Native Americans; Senator Dawes was a leading proponent; wanted to make Native Americans into farmers.
-The Ghost Dance Movement: a ritual that was believed would restore the Native Americans to their traditional way of life; Reservation police forcibly put down the movement, & arrested the leaders.

-Battle of Wounded Knee: December 29, 1890; the Seventh Cavalry rounded up and killed 300 unarmed Sioux; this marked the end of the Indian Wars.

Ranchers & Cowboys
-Ranchers & cowboys ushered in the era of the long drive & the roundup (open...
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