Caribean Studies Handout #1
Early Migratory Movements of the Indigenous Peoples into the CaribeanHistory tels us that before the European invasion into the Americas there were pre- historic Amerindian groups who lived in the region. These groups setled in areas as far back as 500-300 BC to 7, 00 years ago. These peoples were the Ostionoids, Barancoids and the Saladoids who infiltrated the region from which you have the descendants of the Kalinagos, Tainos, Mayas, Aztecs and Incas. Archaeological evidence shows that hese people ate shelfish and made bone and stone they were referedto as the pre- ceramic group. Archaeologists show that he first people to have come to the region traveled from Siberia and Alaska acros the Bering Strait. Some also believed that hese people made their way into the Americas via the winds and curents of the Pacific Ocean; by folowing animals acros the ice bridge which joined Alaska and Siberia. Before the ice- bridge disapeared many groups of hunters pushed those who came south about some 18,00 years ago. Most of the earlier groups who came during the pre- Ceramic period lived in the Greater and LeserAntiles for 500 years before the arival of the other groups. These people were aculturated with the Saladoid, Barancoid and Ostionoid cultures from which came the Tainos, Kalinagos and Mayas. These people had established trading systems conected to the mainland teritories. The Tainos and Kalinagos co-existed with these ceramic groups and in fact mixed with them. These Ceramic group stil live in western Cuba and remote areas of Hispaniola ( they are refered to as Ciboneys) The Tainos were not a separate group that came to the region, they simply where hybrids of the earlier peoples of the Greater Antiles. The Tainos arived in the Caribean through Venezuela- Trinidad gate way about 30BC. The last wave of migrants from South America before the contact was the “Island Caribs so caled to diferentiate them from the present day Caribs of Venezuela and Guianas. However, historians today are of the view that both groups evolved from the common Saladoids. Tainos and KalinagosSocial Organization
Farming activites were caried almost entirely by women; fishing and hunting were done by men. The kalinago society was very miltaristic while the Tainos society was hierarchical. They lived in rectangular and round shaped houses made of poles and thatch. Government Each independent Taino community was ruled by a cacique, a hereditary ruler who also acted as high priest and judge. On the other hand, each Kalinago family was independent; justice was caried out on a personal level. A leser civil eader supervised farming and fishing activites, but his authority was subordinate to that of the “Ouboutu.
A mixture of zemism- the worship of zemis or idols believed to control the forces of nature- and spiritualism, formed the basis of the Taino religion. The cacique, acting as high priest, presided over al religious ceremonies and communicated with ancestors and Gods on numerous ocasions. Tainos believed in the Afterlife. Kalinagos on the hand, was spiritualistic. Special boys were trained as priest and they had the most powerful “maboya” or god and evil spirit.
Customs Both Amerindian group flatened the foreheads of their babies. They enjoyed singing, dancing to music and tobaco smoking. They also played a bal game caled “ batos”.2 The Kalinago boys were trained as wariors and a smal initation ceremony ushered them into manhod. Before they atack the Tainos the wariors worked themselves into a rage, used their war canoes to caryout he atack, always caried way their dead and any captured Taino men who were starved for five days, then ceremonialy kiled and eaten. Captured women became the concubines of the Kalinago wariors. Seafod, vegetables and pepers were the main fod items along with agouti, and iguana. Technology
The Tainos and the Kalinagos were skiled at constructing and...
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