Many older patients are prescribed multiple drugs, take over-the-counter medications, and are often prescribed additional drugs to treat the side effects of the medications that they are already taking. The increase in the number of medications often leads to polypharmacy, which is defined as the prescription, administration, or use of more medications than are clinically indicated in a given patient. One widely used ADL tool is the Barthel Index : measure functional levels of self-care and mobility, and it rates the ability to feed and groom oneself, bathe, go to the toilet, walk (or propel a wheelchair), climb stairs, and control bowel and bladder. The original ADL tool was developed by Katz
Several interventions that may help the prescriber to prevent polypharmacy include knowing all medications, by both brand and generic name, being used by the patient; identifying indications for each medication; knowing the side effect profiles of the medications; eliminating drugs with no benefit or indication; and avoiding the urge to treat a drug reaction with another drug. Patient education on the risks of polypharmacy may help the patient as well. The Mini-Cog: The screening consists of a three-item recall and a clock-drawing test. This reliable tool can assist nurses with early detection of cognitive problems. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE): measure change in cognitive impairment. It measures orientation, registration, attention and calculation, short-term recall, language, and visuospatial function. *Dementia is a permanent progressive decline in cognitive function Of the five senses—hearing, vision, smell, taste, and touch—it is the occurrence of diminished vision and hearing that seems to have the greatest impact on older adults. Problems with vision or hearing can have negative effects on social interaction and hence on social and psychological health. Presbyopia refers to an age-related change in vision.
Presbycusis refers to...
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