business 101

Topics: Ethics, Management, Maslow's hierarchy of needs Pages: 5 (1044 words) Published: May 25, 2014
Business Exam UNIT 1
The 4 major functions of management are: decision making, organizing, controlling, and leading Managerial roles have : 3 interpersonal roles (figure head, leader, liason), 3 informational roles (monitor, disseminator, spokesperson) and 4 decisional roles (entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator) Bureaucratic: things are done “by the book” done by procedures or policy (more of a police officer than a leader) Advantages: employees repeat the same tasks over and over therefore they know the policies and what to do Disadvantages: work habits may be hard to break because there is no lenience

Autocratic: classical approach where the manager retains as much power and decision making authority Does not consult employees and they are not allowed input
Advantages: effective supervision, useful when employees do not listen to other leadership styles Disadvantages: threats and punishment to influence employees, low morale, employees become tense, fearful and resentful

Laissez-faire: “hands off” manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom; employees must determine their own goals, make decisions and resolve problems on their own Advantages: when highly skilled experienced workers have freedom to make their own decisions Disadvantages: employees have all the power and freedom although they must solve problems on their own, no feedback

Democratic: participative, they encourage employees to be a part of decision making, keeps people informed, they have the final say but gathers information before making a decision Advantages: high quality, and high quantity of work trust, cooperation, team spirit, high morale; good for building participation Disadvantages: cost efficient if the manager decision makes therefore employees will have no say

Fredrick w. Taylor:
Found employees “soldiering” (working slowly) so he started “piece work pay system” which paid employees based on their productivity 4 steps to improve management:
1. Break down the job into small portions
2. Hire the most qualified people
3. Train/use supervisors to monitor
4. Keep only the employees who show progress and provide monetary incentives

Frank and Lilian Gilbreth:
Industrial engineers conducted motion studies in brick laying techniques Found that efficient ways to reduce the physical movements
Reduced from 18 steps to 5 steps
Increased productivity by 200% and profit levels (reduction in time)

Henry Fayol:
Created the 4 functions of management (planning, organizing, leading and controlling) His thinking was expressed in 14 principles for effective management

Max Weber: (bureaucratic management)
Standards rules/guidelines for all
Clearly defined job descriptions, responsibilities, duties, and fixed salaries Hierarchy of authority
used mainly in government jobs
advantages: it is efficient and fair
disadvantages: strict rules, “red tape”

Mary Parker Follet:
Studied the importance of human elements in the workplace; employees need to be given responsibility and ownership in the company Started profit sharing ideas

Elton Mayo:
Conducted the Hawthorne Studies in Chicago’s western electric plant in 12924-27 Studied productivity vs. working conditions
Study 1: control of light/heat only in one room of the factory When illumination was increased, productivity increased for the entire company Why? Employees were given attention productivity was declined when lighting was reduced and experiment was completed Study 2: 6 women moved off assembly line for 1 week and given extra lunch time, breaks and attention Result: increase in productivity, self-esteem, loyalty, co-operation Women enjoyed socializing and formed friendships: productivity decreased when things were back to regular routine Conclusion: great need for recognition, breaks, teamwork, social things, employees need to be “stroked” made feel good; sense of belonging the” somebody upstairs...
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