The Bronze Age → Dark Ages
Tigris and Euphrates
Nile : flooding every year which makes the soil fertile
In the 4th millenium, settled clusters of people
2. Old kingdom - known for grandiose architecture (pyramids)
3. First intermediate
4. Middle kingdom - brief, unspectacular
5. Second intermediate period - started around 1800 B.C., Egypt is experiencing a decline, irregular floods, people losing trust in the government. Hyksos arrive in Egypt - very traumatic, never happened before, invaders. They come on horse-drawn chariots, with more sophisticated bows. They conquer lower Egypt and move into the Egyptian territory. Speculated that during this time, the Hebrews came to Egypt. Hyksos adopted Egyptian things, they are driven out and a new kingdom forms around the time 1570 B.C. - 1085 B.C.
6. New kingdom -
7. Final centuries
Normer (strong ruler of upper Egypt) - unification of upper and lower Egypt
Upper Nile - where it begins, lower Nile is where it is dumped
Preparing for the afterlife really concerned the Egyptians. Royal tombs - pyramids.
Egyptians wanted to preserve your body, get you ready for the next life - embalming
Go on spiritually: mind, soul, etc.
Thutmose I - In response to the Hyksos invasion, he pushed Egypts frontiers out as far as possible. Pushes north and south (Sudan) = EXPANSION
Thutmost III - too young to reign when he comes to power, so his minder is Hatshepsut. She ruled in disguise, had statues as herself with a beard to hide the fact that she was a woman. When Thutmost III finally reaches the age where he can reign, he takes over the throne, and destroys the evidence of Hatshepsut. Period of increasing warfare - foreign armies are starting to grow (ex. Turkey). Egypt was fighting battles to keep them away. Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV)- preist of the sun god owned 70% of the land of Egypt where they did not have to pay taxes. When Amenhotep IV comes to power, he wants to raise revenue, but most of the land is owned by the priest of the sun god. He abolishes the official religion, and focuses on Akhenaten (changes his name) and demands that everyone believe in Akhenaten. Instead of a real conversion of religion, but a scheme to defraud territory from the priest. The first time. Moment of monotheism - single god. His reign lasts very short, from 1370 - 1353 B.C. He is followed by Tutankhamun. This religion is abandoned, and the turmoil of this changed religion weakens Egypt.
Final decline 1085- 525 . Palestine is taken by the Israelites, period to the South are lost. Assyrians are pressing in, as are the Persians. Eventually Alexander takes over the territory. Egypt becomes are Roman province. The last ruler of this province is Cleopatra.
Egyptians needed some sort of writing - came up with hieroglyphics. Ideas are strung together. Egyptians also drew images of human beings - importance is measured by size.
The World of the Greeks
Bronze Age Greece runs until the year 1200
Three different groups :
Found statues, figures shaped like humans.
Sir Arthur Evans - historian - fascinated by Greek mythology, and wanted to try to find the world of the early Greeks. He found the palace at Knossos, Crete. Palace may have been confused by labyrinth (Minos). No thick walls, means that they felt secure, no invaders - largely peaceful. They survived on trade - Minoans based on wine, jewelry, olive oil, etc.
Schleimann - turned up what turned out to be Troy, and discovered Mycenae. Thick walls, so it is safe to presume they were warriors, their artifacts tended to be offensive weapons. For a period of about 350 years, things start to quiet down. Literacy, highly detailed jewelry dissapates. People are beginning to paint, and pottery emerges. There is a demand for trading the pottery. An increase in commerce, currency, trade. Life...
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