Blade Runner

Topics: Periodic table, Chemical element, Atom Pages: 153 (15696 words) Published: May 27, 2014
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keep it simple science

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 2

METALS
What is this topic about?
To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of: 1. OUR USE of METALS
2. CHEMICAL ACTIVITY of the METALS
3. PATTERNS of the PERIODIC TABLE
4. QUANTITY CALCULATIONS... the MOLE
5. METALS from their ORES
...all in the context of how Chemistry contributes to cultural development

but first, an introduction...
Chemistry of the Metals

Technology Needs Metals

In the previous topic you learnt about the
Elements of the Periodic Table. In this topic you
will concentrate on the chemistry of the metals,
and some of the chemical patterns that they
show.
... and Speaking of Patterns,
in this topic you will find that

The great sweep of human cultural development
has many aspects... Language, Religion, Art &
Music, and, of course, Technology.
The history of technology is closely linked with
our use of metals; in fact historians have named
some parts of history after the metals that
changed the way people lived.

The Periodic Table
is full of patterns

Dagger from the “Bronze Age”

tals
Me

This topic starts with a quick look at the history
of metal use, and ends with a study of how we
get metals from the Earth, and the chemistry of
the extraction process.

No
nMe
tal
s

Measuring Chemical Quantities

In this topic you will also be introduced to the
concept of the “Mole”...
not a burrowing mammal!
not a traitor within the group!
not a gangster’s girlfriend!
certainly not a skin blemish!
A Chemical Mole is a clever way to measure
quantities; essential for analysis & chemical
manufacture.

Electrically powered smelter plant
for extracting
Aluminium from its ore

If you know the mass,
you can figure out
how many atoms there are...
thanks to the mole.

Photo courtesy of Comalco Aluminium Ltd
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 2 “Metals”
Copyright © 2005-2009 keep it simple science
2
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au

1

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Copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only

keep it simple science

CONCEPT DIAGRAM (“Mind Map”) OF TOPIC
Some students find that memorising the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and remember the concepts and important facts. As you proceed through the topic, come back to this page regularly to see how each bit fits the whole.

At the end of the notes you will find a blank version of this “Mind Map” to practise on.

History of
Metal Use

The Activity Series
of the Metals
Metals
We Use
Today

Our Use of
Metals

Electron Transfer
REDOX

1st Ionization
Energy

Chemical Activity
of the Metals

Activity & Usage
of Metals

Patterns of the
Periodic Table

METALS

History of the
Periodic Table

Definition of the
Mole.
Avogadro’s
Number

Quantity
Calculations

Extracting Metals
from Ores

the Mole

Molar Ratios in
Reactions

Empirical
Formulas

Case Study:
Extracting
Copper
from its Ore

Minerals
Ores
&
Resources

Mole Quantity
Calculations

Gay-Lussac’s Law
&
Avogadro’s Hypothesis

The Case for
Recycling Metals

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 2 “Metals”
Copyright © 2005-2009 keep it simple science
2
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au

2

®

Copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only

keep it simple science

1. OUR USE OF METALS
The First Uses of Metals

The Iron Age (approx. 2,500 to 1,500 years ago)

About 5,000 years ago, in the Middle East, some
people accidentally discovered that if certain rocks
were roasted by fire, small amounts of copper
would be found later in the ashes. Copper is too
soft to be really useful, but there was a brief
“Copper Age” around the eastern end of the
Mediterranean Sea. Copper was used for
decoration, jewellery, small utensils, and
occasionally for knives and spear points.

Iron is...
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