Study guide for exam 2. Chapter 7 ‐ Membrane Structure and Function Define fluid mosaic model semi‐permeability amphipathic molecules What is the effect of unsaturated fatty acids on membrane structure and properties? What is the effect of cholesterol on membrane structure and properties? Membrane Proteins and Their Functions peripheral Integral proteins Classification based on function (transport, enzymatic activity, cell‐cell interactions, etc.) How do proteins get to cell surface? The role of ribosomes, ER, Golgi Semipermeability Which molecules pass through membrane easily (polar vs. non‐polar, hydrophobic vs. hydrophilic, etc.) The role of ion channels, transport proteins, etc. Diffusion – what is it? How does it work? Does it require energy? Is it a type of active or passive transport? What is concentration gradient? What is facilitated diffusion? Osmosis – what is it? How does it differ from diffusion? Tonicity – hypotonic, isotonic, hypertonic – what does it mean? Active transport – does it require energy? Movement of substances down or against their concentration gradient? How does sodium‐potassium pump work? What is electrochemical gradient? Cotransport – what is it? Bulk transport – exocytosis vs. endocytosis (pinocytosis, phagocytosis, receptor‐ mediated endocytosis) Chapter 8 ‐ Introduction to Metabolism Define What is metabolism? What is metabolic pathway? Substrate? Product? Enzyme? Catalyst? Active site? Cofactor? Coenzyme? Catabolic vs. anabolic; exorgenic vs. endorgenic reactions? Types of energy (kinetic, heat, chemical, potential ) Thermodynamics, open vs. closed system The first and second law of thermodynamics What is free energy? What is energy coupling? What is activation energy? How do enzymes catalyze reactions (by lowering activation energy)
Chapter 9 – Cellular respiration ...
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