UNIT 1 – What is Biology?
What is biology? the study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin, and distribution. Biotic vs. abiotic factors
Biotic- living factors i.e. plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and protest Abiotic- nonliving factors that affect living organisms. Environmental factors: habitat & weather 7 Characteristics of living things (Bio 3 Book Ch. 1)
Uni-cellular vs. Multi-cellular
Uni-Cellular- single celled organisms, i.e. bacteria, amoeba, and viruses. They have cilia that help them move around and reproduce both asexually and sexually. They get their food through phagocytosis. They are Multi-cellular- living organisms made up of more than one cell. Multi-cellular organisms coordinate w/ each other to help the body function. Are viruses considered living things? Why/why not?
Viruses are not living things. Viruses are complicated assemblies of molecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates, but on their own they can do nothing until they enter a living cell. Without cells, viruses would not be able to multiply. What is homeostasis? Why is it important to maintain homeostasis? Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes. It is a unifying principle of biology. An example in the human body is the central nervous system, which controls your body temperature. W/out homeostasis, it’d be impossible for organisms to function and live on their own. You should be able to apply this concept to other topics you have learned about this year, such as maintaining a stable pH, temperature, water balance, etc. Organizing biology
Levels of biology (small to large) (Bio 3 book Figure 1.2)
Atom, molecule, cell… population, community, etc.
Biosphere= all ecosystems
Ecosystem= consists of all organisms living in a particular area, as well as the nonliving, physical components of the environment Community= consists of various populations of organisms living together in a given area Population= a group of organisms of the same species in any given area. Organism= within a population there are organisms, just one of those organisms is called an organism. For example, within a population lions, there is a lion. Organ system= consists of different organs that work together for a specific function. Organ= consists of different tissues that function together to do a certain job
Tissue= consists of similar cells that work together
Cell= the smallest unit of life that is able to carry out all the functions of living things Molecule= consists of different atoms. For example, DNA, within DNA there are oxygen atoms and different proteins. Atom= the smallest unit of matter that has the chemical properties of a particular element. Biodiversity: Why is it beneficial to ecosystems?
Biodiversity is the diversity of life in an area. There are three kinds of biodiversity. One type is genetic diversity which is the diversity of genes in a species. Species need certain genes to survive. If the diversity is lacking, the species may die, and its numbers will diminish. Species diversity (another kind of biodiversity) is the variety of living things in areas such as rainforests, reefs, deserts, tundra, etc. The last type of biodiversity is ecological diversity. It’s the complexity and richness of an ecosystem. Classification (organization) of living things is based on characteristics such as Autotrophs: photosynthetic- self feeding producers- plants, bacteria Heterotrophs: herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, decomposers Herbivores- eats foliage
Carnivores- eat meat
Ominovres- eat both meat and foliage
Decomposers- organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic cells -Compare and contrast
How is DNA organized in prokaryotic vs eukaryotic cells?...
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