Biology 1500 Exam 3 Notes

Topics: Natural selection, Population ecology, Biology Pages: 21 (4328 words) Published: December 3, 2013
ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

Animal behavior: what an animal does when interacting with its environment A lot of animal’s behaviors are genetically predetermined

- Ethology
Study of animal behavior
Didn’t exist
- People
Karl von Frisch
Applied scientific method to study bees
Figured out how bees tell other bees
Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen
Scandinavian
Their research helped to show that some behaviors have genetic bases Nobel prize
- Evolution
Underlays all behavior
Behaviors enhance survival
- Genes and experience produce behaviors
- Lovebirds
Loud screams
140 decibels
Do things with precision, varies between species
Nest building
Types:
Fischer’s
puts nesting material on the floor
tears off a strip of paper
carries material in beak up to nesting box
Peach-faced
carries material to nesting box tucked under tail
Hybrid
tear off longer piece of paper
tried to tuck under tail, didn’t work
instead, it brushed it upon the tail, but then carried it by mouth exhibited both behaviors
showed genetic component of behavior
important functions genetically predetermined
experience influences hard-wired genetics
plasticity

Innate behavior
- Genetically predetermined behavior
- Genetic component to a lot of behaviors
- Important to evolution
- Lorenz and Tinbergen first to say these behaviors are vital Fixed action patterns (FAP)
unchanging behavioral sequence which must be done in its entirety innate response to certain stimulus
the animal can’t change certain behaviors
Greylag goose
Domesticated goose in Scandinavia
Builds a shallow nest usually surrounded by water
When egg rolls away, mother has to get it
head goes over egg then rolls it under until its under mother again will move in that direction even if egg isn’t there
European Cuckoo
Social parasite
Lays its eggs in nests of other birds and other bird raises the bird Cuckoo hatches first, then gets rid off all the other eggs
Cardinal raising another species
Baby cuckoo fixed action pattern is the movement pushing out the egg All baby birds open mouth for food when nest moves
moms see colorful mouth of baby bird, feeds them
enable newborn offspring to nurse

Learning: A change in behavior resulting from experience.
- Varies from simple behaviors to complex problem-solving.

- Types:
Habituation: The loss of response to a stimulus after repeated exposure. You ignore stuff that isn’t going to hurt you
This helps in saving energy.
Ex: after a while, you stop noticing that the person next to you is tapping their foot. Ex: scarecrow
The first time you put it up, birds don’t come near it, but after awhile they realize that it won’t hurt them so they ignore it. Imprinting: Learning that is limited to a very specific time period in an organism’s life. Once that organism learns whatever it learns in that specific time period, it cannot unlearn it. No matter what happens, it cannot be unlearned. This is genetic

One result is the formation of a strong pair bond between a mother and her offspring. There is a specific time during imprinting called the “critical period” which is when the learning occurs. Once the critical period is over, the stuff that the animal learned never changes. Ex: baby geese (like in “Fly Away Home”) see their mom right after the hatch. Association: (AKA: Classical Conditioning) This has to do with learning that is dependent on reinforcement. This reinforcement can either be positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement. Ex: Pavlov’s dogs (rang a bell, the dogs would salivate)

Imitation: You imitate another organism. This is a type of learning by observing another organism of your species doing a certain behavior. Most predators learn hunting techniques by watching other members or their species do it, mostly parents. Insight: (AKA: Innovation) Problem solving. The ability to find the correct behavior to deal with a particular situation. The ability to think of possible solutions and...
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